WILBERT

Wildauer Bücher+E-Medien Recherche-Tool

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objectives of this paper are i) to assess the recent changes in the "actuarial factor" and their distributive and financial impacts in the short and long term. The actuarial factor was created in 1999 to adjust the individual benefit level according to age, time of contribution and life expectancy at the time benefit is granted and was made optional by Law 13.183/2015; ii) to present the rules of old age pensions in Brazil, from a comparative perspective; and iii) to assess scenarios for pension reforms in Brazil, considering the introduction of a minimum wage rule.Law 13.318/2015 will increase social security expenditures in the long term (as compared to the previous scenario) and make these expenditures more regressive, increasing individual and regional economic inequalities in Brazil. As projections for the basic scenario already suggest a strong increase in social security expenditures, any additional increase is a reason for concern. Projections for the basic scenario are influenced by rules for old age pensions in Brazil, that do not follow the international best practices and that are adopted in only 13 other countries (among the 177 whose regulations are compiled by the International Social Security Association).Projections for the demographic evolution over the next decades point to a challenging scenario regarding the social security management in Brazil. By 2060, the country will have two working-age people for each person aged 65 or more. Adopting a minimum age threshold of 65/60 years for men/women, respectively, to have access to old age pensions will only marginally improve the trajectory of social security expenditures in the long term - suggesting that other reforms will be necessary.
    Keywords: H53 ; H55 ; J11 ; ddc:330 ; length of contribution pension ; actuarial factor ; pension reform ; demography and public policies ; pension expenditure forecast
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The discussion around the possible impacts of the recently proposed pension reform (Constitutional Amendment Bill No. 287/2016) on poverty and inequality has been largely impressionistic to date. The present study tries to bridge this gap by using counterfactual microsimulations based on the 2015 National Household Survey (PNAD). These simulations allow for the comparison of poverty and inequality indicators observed in 2015 with estimates for the full implementation of two different versions of the pension reform (the proposed by the Executive and the proposed by the Chamber of Deputies). The effects of implementing the reform are computed both for the overall proposals and for each of their components. Finally, these effects are also estimated on the age structure expected for 2040. The simulations suggest that the pension reform would produce only modest distributive effects. The Executive version would have a larger impact (reaching, directly or indirectly, almost 20 per cent of the Brazilian population). It would increase the poverty rate (based on the ¼-of-the-minimum-wage poverty line) from the current 9.4 per cent to 11.1 per cent. Inequality would increase marginally. The Legislative version would marginally increase the poverty rate (in 0.4 percentage point) and decrease inequality marginally. The results do not support excessively optimistic or pessimistic perceptions about the possible effects of the pension reform on poverty and inequality. ¼-of-the-minimum-wage
    Keywords: D31 ; H31 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; pension reform ; poverty ; inequality
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Rural workers in Brazil can access old-age pensions five years earlier than urban workers. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether unifying the ages of eligibility among these groups (a measure proposed in the last failed pension reform) makes sense from a comparative perspective, and considering the social risks faced by these two groups. This study is based on administrative records from the National Institute of Social Security (Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social - INSS), and data from the 2015 wave of the National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD) and from the 2013 wave of the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS), both conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE). International experience suggests that having different ages of eligibility for old-age pensions for rural and urban workers is, at best, an unusual practice. Survival analysis (using both the Kaplan-Meier procedure and the Cox model) performed on INSS administrative records reveals that rural pensioners do not live less than urban ones. Whereas rural workers are disproportionately affected by social and health risks, they comprise a minority of the people living under vulnerable social and health conditions in absolute terms. The conclusion is that there seems to be no solid rationale for having a lower (and arbitrary) retirement age for rural workers.
    Keywords: D78 ; H55 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; rural pensions ; pension reform ; survival analysis
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Conditional cash transfer programmes have been increasingly adopted by several lowand middle-income countries. Despite this overall acceptance, conditionalities remain under scrutiny regarding their possible independent effects on educational and health indicators. This paper is an ecological study of conditionalities in Brazil's Bolsa Família programme. As programme coverage (taken as a proxy of cash transfers) and monitoring and enforcement of the educational conditionalities (proxy of conditionalities) are not correlated at the municipal level, this study fits a number of different ordinary least square (OLS) and growth-curve models to explain variations in drop-out rates and school progression in basic education in public schools across municipalities. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; effects ; conditionality ; monitoring ; educational outcomes ; evidence ; Brazil ; Bolsa Família programme
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The National Forum for Social Security (FNPS) was the main happening occurred in 2007 for people interested on this subject. Long term forecasts for the General Regime of Social Security (RGPS), produced by the Secretariat for Social Security Policies (SPS/MPS), were strongly debated during the Forum. Criticism was addressed both to assumptions adopted by SPS/MPS (e.g., GDP growth rates and share of registered jobs in the labour market) and to structural features of the forecast model (e.g., the rigid relationship between revenues, wages and GDP). The first purpose of this paper is to present and to defend both the assumptions and the model adopted by SPS/MPS. The second purpose is to verify if several policies suggested during the FNPS would be effective to stabilize RGPS expenditures and balance in the long term. The results obtained demonstrated that administrative improvements, growth in registered jobs and in female participation rates could improve RGPS revenues and reduce its imbalance both in the short and medium term, but would not be enough to avoid the strong acceleration of expenditures and deficits in the long run.
    Keywords: C89 ; H55 ; J38 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The employer`s payroll contribution for pension system relief has been one of the most important topic on the debate about social security. Some advocates that the traditional source of funds for pension system tends to undergo a process of erosion.And there are critics, who argue that there is not a direct relationship between tax relief and elevation of formality or wages paid, among others.The main objectives of this work are: to evaluate the rationality of proposals for payroll taxation relief; to check for the fiscal and income distribution short-run impacts of these proposals (as well as suggest what need to occur in the formal labour market to offset this release); and to present the arguments against the current tax relief proposals and compensation through another tribute.One of the conclusions reached is that the impact of release on the level of formality, income, income inequality and social security revenues is controversial. It also concludes that linear release without compensation can be detrimental to pension system fiscal equilibrium. Thus, the proposal of focused release has the advantages of being less costly and still have positive impacts on income inequality.
    Keywords: J32 ; H32 ; H55 ; O17 ; ddc:330 ; Gewerbesteuer ; Soziale Sicherheit ; Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Brazil is one of thirteen countries in the world whose social insurance system offers a pension based solely upon length of contribution, with no age requirement. This kind of benefit allows contributors to have access to pensions at relatively young ages (here defined as before 60 years old for men and 55 years old for women). The Brazilian legislation does not prevent pensioners from continuing to work and therefore it does not necessarily produce any impacts on labour market participation and productivity. However, what is the real impact of early access to pensions on the labour market? Does the economy lose in production and/or productivity when people have such early access to pensions? Based on data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics' National Household Sample Survey (Pnad), the authors apply a logistic model to measure if (and how much) early access to pensions decreases the probability of beneficiaries continuing to work. They also deploy two other strategies (Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of wage differentials and propensity score weighting) to evaluate whether there is a decrease in productivity among pensioners that continue to work. Conservative estimates suggest a loss of 0.6 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) per year as an effect of early access to pensions. The most significant effect of early pensions would be on the reduction of work among beneficiaries (0.5 per cent of GDP). There is also an additional effect on reduction of productivity, of 0.1 per cent of GDP.
    Keywords: H55 ; J21 ; J14 ; ddc:330 ; early pensions ; production ; productivity
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The goal of the study is to evaluate the targeting of the Bolsa Família Programme and its impacts on the reduction of poverty and inequality. To that end, we have used data from the 2001-2015 standard National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD) and from the 2016 and the 2017 longitudinal PNAD. The results support the findings of previous studies. Bolsa Família is by far the most progressive transfer ever enacted by the federal government. Its excellent targeting explains why, despite its small budget (0.5 per cent of GDP) and its limited representation in household income as reflected by PNAD (0.7 per cent), the programme has such a significant impact on poverty reduction: its transfers reduce poverty by 15 per cent and extreme poverty by 25 per cent. Dynamic decompositions of the Gini coefficient suggest that the programme was responsible for the 10 per cent of the reduction in inequality between 2001 and 2015. From 2001 to 2006 (the period during which the programme grew most significantly), Bolsa Família accounted for almost 17 per cent of the observed reduction in inequality. Findings suggest that the targeting of the Programme is already very good and that the main restraining factor of the Programme's impact on poverty is not targeting, but rather the low value of the transfers.
    Keywords: D31 ; D78 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; poverty ; inequality ; redistribution ; cash transfers
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Keywords: J16 ; H55 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: The objective of this paper is to propose a universal child grant for Brazil. We will discuss the rationality behind the proposal, how best to design it, its initial operational set-up,its costs, and some of its distributive aspects. The proposed allowance is based on the unification of the three child allowances that currently exist in the country.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Universal ; child ; grant ; Brazil ; expect
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...