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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-3424
    Keywords: emotional stress ; brain ; oxidative damage ; glutathione ; protein oxidation ; antioxidant enzymes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Abstract We studied the role of free radicals on brain oxidative damage in rats after acute immobilization stress (restraint) and mild emotional stress (handling). To investigate brain oxidative damage, CuZn and Mn dependent superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD, Mn SOD) activities, lipid peroxidation (TBARs), Na + K + ATPase activity, protein carbonyl (PrC), and reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG) levels were measured in the cerebral cortex (CTX), hippocampus (HIP), and striatum (ST) of the animals after the two different stress stimuli. Because stress produces abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the intensity of the two stress conditions were measured by plasmatic corticosteroid (COR) levels: particularly, COR levels doubled in handled rats and increased 15-fold in restrained animals. The SOD activities increased in CTX and decreased in HIP of the handled rats, while in ST a significant decrease in handled animals but an increase in restrained animals occurred. TBARs, GSH, and GSSG levels remained unchanged, while an index of glutathione redox decreased significantly in ST of handled animals and in CTX of restrained ones. Na + K + ATPase activity increased significantly in the HIP and ST of both groups of stressed rats. The stress induced a remarkable increase in PrC levels in all studied cerebral areas. These findings provide evidence to support the idea that stress produces oxidants but that the oxidative damage in stress differs in cerebral areas and could contribute to the degenerative mechanism of aging.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology 45 (2000), S. 172-176 
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Amifostine ; Superoxide radicals ; Hydroxyl radicals ; Lipoperoxyl radicals ; Antioxidant properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: Amifostine (WR-2721), a phosphorylated aminothiol pro-drug which is an analogue of cysteamine, is a selective cytoprotective agent for normal tissues from the toxicities associated with chemotherapy and irradiation. Despite a growing number of reports strongly supporting amifostine's clinical efficacy, few authors have focused on the biochemical basis of amifostine's antioxidant activity. Methods: We report on amifostine's free-radical scavenging activity against superoxide (O2˙−), hydroxyl (OH−) and lipoperoxyl radicals in an in vitro model, using pure chemical systems. Amifostine was dephosphorylated to its active metabolite, WR-1065, by adding 10% non-heat-inactivated serum; different amifostine concentrations (1, 10, 50, 100 μM and 200 μM) and pH conditions (pH 5, 7.4 and 9) were tested. Results: Independent of the concentration, amifostine exhibited no major activity against O2˙− ions, neither did any pH variations in the experimental model provide any scavenger effects of the drug against O2˙− radicals. On the other hand, the protective effect of amifostine against OH− radicals was confirmed, yielding an EC50 of 255 μM at pH 7.4 and 230 μM at pH 5. Finally, amifostine exhibited scavenging activity against spontaneous lipoperoxidation, but no apparent antioxidant effect on iron ascorbate-induced lipoperoxidation. Conclusions: With this in vitro study, we are able to confirm the scavenging activity of the chemo- and radioprotector amifostine, whose activity seems to be particularly important from a biological point of view, since it is exerted mainly against highly reactive OH−.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 444 (2006), S. 574-579 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Duchenne muscular dystrophy remains an untreatable genetic disease that severely limits motility and life expectancy in affected children. The only animal model specifically reproducing the alterations in the dystrophin gene and the full spectrum of human pathology is the golden retriever dog ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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