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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 24 (1999), S. 1037-1042 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Lead acetate ; adenylate cyclase ; 5′-guanylylimidodiphosphate ; forskolin ; cerebral cortex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Lead decreased in a dose dependent manner the basal AC activity in membranes of rat cerebral cortex (IC50 = 2.5 ± 0.1 μM). In membranes preincubated under basal conditions, AC activity was stimulated by approximately two and fourfold by 10 μM Gpp(NH)p or forskolin, respectively. Under basal conditions, lead (3 μM) inhibited enzyme activity up to 50%, but was not able to inhibit the Gpp(NH)p- or the forskolin-stimulated AC activity. However, in membranes preincubated with Gpp(NH)p (10 μM), lead (3 μM) had no significant effect on enzyme activity, but it partly blocked the stimulation of AC activity elicited by forskolin (10 μM). In membranes preincubated with 10 μM lead, the addition of 10 μM Gpp(NH)p or forskolin in the incubation medium did not stimulate AC activity. However, when added together in the incubation medium Gpp(NH)p + forskolin produced an increase in enzyme activity. In membranes preincubated with 10 μM lead + 10 μM Gpp(NH)p, Gpp(NH)p (10 μM) or forskolin (10 μM) added alone or in combination to the incubation medium did not stimulate AC activity. Moreover, under these latter conditions lead had no further effect on enzyme activity. These results indicate that lead may interact with G-proteins and with the catalytic subunit of cerebral cortical AC to produce inhibition of the enzyme activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 23 (1998), S. 519-524 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glutamate ; excitotoxicity ; rat hippocampus ; guanine nucleotides ; reactive oxygen species ; chemiluminescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Glutamate significantly increased levels of spontaneous chemiluminescence (CL) in rat hippocampal slices incubated under hypoxic conditions. Although it has been previously shown that guanine nucleotides (GN) displace glutamate from several of its receptors, in our study only GMP, as well as the glutamate antagonist MK-801, was able to reverse the increase in CL provoked by glutamate. On the other hand, not only GTP or Gpp(NH)p failed to reverse the action of glutamate, but they increased CL production like glutamate. This effect of GTP/Gpp(NH)p was also reversed by GMP. We concluded that, under neurotoxic conditions, GMP acted as an antagonist and GTP or Gpp(NH)p acted as agonists of glutamate. These results reinforced the evidence of the existence of extracellular site(s) for GN and indicated a possible role for GN in excitotoxicity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant cell, tissue and organ culture 27 (1991), S. 155-160 
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: browning ; 8-hydroxy-quinolinol-sulfate ; infections ; in vitro-establishment ; Malus domestica ; micropropagation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Applying the new method for culture initiation 16 different cultivars of Malus domestica could be established in vitro from shoot tips of adult orchard trees. Actively growing shoot tips were cleaned and surface disinfested, dissected to 2–3 mm and placed on a modified MS-medium with 4.4 μM BA. Explants were covered for 24 h with 200 μl of a 0.1% solution of 8-hydroxy-quinolinol-sulfate (8-HQS) and transferred to a medium containging both auxin and cytokinin after 2 weeks. The application of 8-HQS induced a strong reduction of the infection rate and inhibited the browning of the explants and the media. After 7 days yields of 50–90% sterile explants could be obtained in comparison to 100% losses of untreated shoot tips. After 60 days variable rates of actively growing shoots could be observed, depending on the genotypes. The described method allows a successful establishment of fruit trees from adult orchard material on one hand by strongly reducing the browning, caused by the oxidation of polyphenolic compounds by polyphenoloxidases, and on the other hand 8-HQS can strongly increase the yield of explants without contamination, independently from the vegetation period and the phytosanitary state of the donor material.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virus genes 2 (1989), S. 119-127 
    ISSN: 1572-994X
    Keywords: plum pox virus ; potyvirus ; coat protein ; nucleotide sequence ; plant virus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A cDNA complementary to the 3′ end of plum pox virus (PPV) RNA was sequenced. The sequence was investigated for the presumable coat protein cistron by computer-aided translation. A fragment containing the stop codon of the polyprotein gene and a putative virus-specific protease cleavage site was subcloned into an E. coli expression vector. It is shown by immunological analysis that the coat protein cistron is located within the subcloned region.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European food research and technology 173 (1981), S. 107-108 
    ISSN: 1438-2385
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Rückstände von Milchfett in Polypropylen-Rohren können mit einer IR-spektralphotometrischen Methode einfach und schnell bestimmt werden. Im Probenextrakt gelöstes Polystyrol bildet nach dem Auftragen auf KBr-Preßlinge einen Film, der als Matrix für das Fett und als innerer Standard für Schichtdicke und Konzentration dient.
    Notes: Summary Residues of milk fat in polypropylene tubing may be determined by a simple and rapid IR-spectrophotometric method. Polystyrene dissolved in the sample extract forms a film on KBr-tablets, which is used as support for the milk fat and as an internal standard for thickness of layer and concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
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    Hamburg: Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsInstitut (HWWI)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: Receiving equal wages for work of equal value is a legal right in many countries. However, it remains unknown to what degree the neglect of this principle yields differences in pay between social and other occupations. The results of a task-based analysis with survey data confirm a notable wage penalty of 0.5 standard deviations for social occupations (e.g., health care, education). Based on these results, we design a laboratory experiment that mimics actual income distributions (Germany, USA), incorporates social occupations in the lab society, and allows for (voluntary) redistribution among subjects. The results show that, regardless of (non-)random assignment to social jobs and the level of income inequality, individuals in social jobs are only partly compensated for their social effort. A downward spiral, induced by emotional reactions, results as social effort and donations converge to a 'low' equilibrium. This suggests that a market approach fails to eliminate the social pay gap.
    Keywords: C90 ; D62 ; D63 ; H23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; inequality ; tasks data ; redistribution ; experiment ; voluntary payments ; social returns ; externality
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Jena: Friedrich Schiller University Jena
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: Crowdinvesting emerged recently as an alternative way of funding for start-up projects. Our dataset consists of all pledges made at Companisto, one of the largest crowdinvesting platforms in Europe. Using cluster analysis based on individual investment histories, we find that crowdinvestors differ in their investment strategies and motivations. We can distinguish three types of crowdinvestors that vary in their response to project quality signals of entrepreneurs, project-related information reducing the degree of uncertainty and social influence by fellow investors: Casual Investors, Crowd Enthusiasts, and Sophisticated Investors. We conclude that crowdinvestors are anything but a homogeneous group. Instead, they are motivated by different factors and respond to different signals when making investment decisions.
    Keywords: G23 ; G41 ; L26 ; ddc:330 ; Crowdinvesting ; Entrepreneurial finance ; New ventures ; Cluster analysis ; Social influence ; Signaling
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Jena: Friedrich Schiller University Jena
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: Interactions between players with private information and opposed interests are often prone to bad advice and inefficient outcomes, e.g. markets for financial or health care services. In a deception game we investigate experimentally which factors could improve advice quality. Besides advisor competition and identifiability, we add the possibility for clients to make a voluntary payment, a bonus, after observing advice quality. While the combination of competition and reputation concerns achieves the highest rate of truthful advice, we observe a similar effect, when the bonus is combined with one of them. Thus, our results suggest that a voluntary component can act as a substitute for either competition or reputation, decreasing moral hazard.
    Keywords: C91 ; D03 ; D82 ; G20 ; I11 ; ddc:330 ; asymmetric information ; principal-agent ; expert services ; deception game ; sender-receiver game ; reciprocity ; reputation ; experiments ; voluntary payment ; competition
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-15
    Description: The emergence of Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) business models as a successful alternative to conventional uniform pricing brings up new questions related to the task of pricing. We investigate the effect of a reduction of privacy on consumers' purchase decisions (whether to buy, and if so how much to pay) in a natural experiment at an online music store with PWYW-like pricing. Our study extends the empirical evidence of the reduced anonymity effect, previously established for donation or public goods contexts, to a consumption environment. We find that revealing the name of the customer led to slightly higher payments, while it drastically reduced the number of customers purchasing. Overall, the regime led to a revenue loss of 15%. The experiment suggests that even low levels of social pressure without face to face interaction on customers leads to a reduction of welfare.
    Keywords: D03 ; D49 ; H41 ; L82 ; L86 ; P14 ; ddc:330 ; Digital content ; Voluntary Payments ; PWYW ; Public goods ; Voluntary contributions ; Social pressure ; Internet ; Privacy ; Natural experiment
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-15
    Description: We construct a simple three person trust game with one trustor and two trustees. The trustor has the possibility to either trust both trustees or none, while the trustees make their decisions either sequentially or simultaneously, depending on the treatment. When trustees play sequentially, follower trustees who are informed about the leader's choice are significantly more selfish than in the simultaneous move treatment, independent of the leader's choice. Leaders do not behave significantly different than in the baseline treatment. Follower trustees cherry pick the motivation that materially serves them best. When the leader trustee plays selfish, they tend to conform. When the leader makes a pro-social choice, followers seem to perceive the duty as already fulfilled by the leader. While guilt works well as a motivational force in a dyadic situation, it gets alleviated easily when the situation allows a shifting of responsibility.
    Keywords: D03 ; D71 ; C79 ; C92 ; ddc:330 ; Team production ; Trust ; Choice architecture ; Guilt aversion ; Conformity ; False consensus effect ; Lab experiment ; Cherry picking
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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