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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : Emerald
    Journal of economic studies 31 (2004), S. 129-143 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: The article investigates the existence of discrimination in the urban and rural labor markets in Brazil. Tests the hypothesis that returns to education are different for black and white workers, male and female, in the urban and rural sectors. The methodology used allows for the decomposition of the difference in the mean earnings of male and female workers in the urban and rural sectors in a share that can be explained by characteristics such as education, hours of work and experience, and in another share that reflects the existence of discrimination. The analysis is carried out with microdata from the National Household Surveys (PNADs) of 1992 and 1998. The choice of the period of analysis was made with the aim of investigating whether changes in the economic environment affect the standard of returns to education. The results suggest the existence of strong discrimination by gender and race, besides the presence of substantial wage differentials between urban and rural workers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Schulpolitik ; Weiterführende Schule ; Lehrplan ; Philosophie ; Soziologie ; Bewertung ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Keywords: C21 ; C53 ; E22 ; E65 ; ddc:330 ; Investitionspolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Investition ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: We investigate the effects of the Profrota Pesqueira Program, created in 2004, on the performance of labor market indicators of municipalities with port fishing terminals. Specifically, we measure the effects on the formal employment and earnings. To do so, we combine employment information from Rais between 2000 and 2015, with data from other sources for obtaining a panel of municipalities. We used Difference in Differences Estimator. The results show that the program did not have positive effects on the indicators evaluated in the fisheries sector. Some of the estimates are robust to analyzes of falsification. Econometric analysis of the effects of the program on the labor market as a whole, with data from the population census, editions 2000 and 2010, reveals that the program seems to have influenced the engagement of workers in paid labor market activities and to reduce labor in own consumption or in the non paid labor market activities.
    Keywords: C21 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Profrota Pesqueira ; impact evaluation ; diference in differences ; labor market
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper presents a tax reform proposal on consumption in Brazil. The basic idea is to add several taxes in a single Value Added Tax (VAT). Unlike the other proposals, which suggest a strategy automatically encompassing all federated entities, our study suggests a dual and modular reform based on the Canadian model. The main advantage of this strategy lies on its implementation because the approval in the National Congress initially does not require greater institutional arrangements but only changes in infraconstitutional laws. Moreover, contrary to the mandatory nature of the others proposals, our model implies a voluntary adhesion of the federated entities. This factor, besides facilitating the approval of the proposal, respects the federative principle of our country.
    Keywords: K34 ; H20 ; H25 ; ddc:330 ; tax reform ; taxes on consumption ; VAT
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This study had the objective of evaluating the impact of the Broadband Program in Schools (PBLE) on the educational quality of schools. For this, two indicators were used: Basic Education Development Index (Ideb) and the average of the National High School Exam (Enem). Adopting differences-in-differences method (DiD) and Panel Data, with and without pairing, it was possible to demonstrate that: i) with data from Ideb referring to the initial years of elementar education, the impact of the program in schools was negative; and ii) in relation to the final years of elementary education, there were improvements in schools in the Southeast and Central West. In addition, the Enem data confirmed which schools in the Southeast region showed improvement in math test (MT), with a significant increase varying between 3% and 4% in performance, but worsened test scores for languages and codes (LC). For the Northeast region, the program had positive effects on the natural science test (NC), but negative on the MT test.
    Keywords: D04 ; I28 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; educational quality ; Broadband Program in Schools (PBLE) ; differences in differences method (DiD) ; evaluation of public policies
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The goal of this article is to estimate the New Keynesian Phillips Curve for Brazilian economy. Due to some specifications problems in regressions estimated by IV method, the GMM-HAC methodology was used in order to address them. We noted the robustness of the results performing a detailed investigation that was based not only on different proxies for the dependent variable and the regressors but also on samples with distinct temporal dimensions. Among the main achievements of this study, the following are more remarkable. Firstly, the inflationary inertia and expectation of inflation are important variables for the dynamic of inflation although the relevance of expectation seems to be more relevant in a more recent period from 2002 onwards. When one estimates the NKPC using data from 1995, the effect of expectation get down and becomes close to the inertia. In second place, the majority of regressions did not reject the hypothesis derived from structural form that the sum of coefficients of lagged inflation and expectation of inflation is equal to unity. Thirdly, the effect of unemployment on inflation seems to present in short term. In the long run, the estimations do not able to detect any impact of unemployment on the dynamic of inflation. Finally, the structural break marks the relationship between the exchange rate and inflation. The regressions estimated with data from 2002, the effect of exchange rate shock is negative. But, when one uses data from 1995, this shock has a positive impact on inflation.
    Keywords: E31 ; E24 ; C33 ; ddc:330 ; Phillips curve ; inflation ; rational expectations ; unemployment ; exchange rate shock ; GMM-HAC method ; New-Keynesian Phillips Curve ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Keywords: E31 ; E24 ; C33 ; ddc:330 ; Phillips-Kurve ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: We estimate a VAR model of the Phillips curve with an exchange rate shock to the Brazilian economy. Several different specifications, with different time frequencies, were estimated. Overall the results were robust to these changes, and can be summed up in the following: i) the pass-through to the next month inflation is around 0.04 percentage points (p.p.) (0.48 p.p. over the annualized inflation); ii) a shock on the unemployment rate lasts for 18 months; iii) a shock on the expectations are carried to the next month inflation (0.58 p.p. over the annualized inflation); and iv) a shock on the inflation rate has no effect over the unemployment rate. That is, more inflation does not reduce unemployment.
    Keywords: E31 ; E24 ; C32 ; ddc:330 ; Phillips-Kurve ; VAR-Modell ; Wechselkurs ; Schock ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This study aims to estimate the system of bank credit demand and supply in Brazil. Understanding how the balance is established in this market is the key to know the importance of the credit channel. Based on the aggregated data from June 2000 to August 2012 not only for firms but also for individuals we founded the following results. First, credit demand is pro-cyclical, reacting negatively to the unemployment and positively to GDP. Second, the price elasticity of demand for firms is higher for firms than for individuals, corroborating the fact that companies may have other sources of funding. Thirdly, it was not possible to determine the bank credit supply to individuals. This fact seems to indicate that there is no reverse causality in the personnel credit in the sense that, for this segment, the credit demand has no effect on the loan rate. Fourth, we observe the expected signs into default, the cost of funding and inflation in credit supply function in both segments. Finally, it appears that the introduction of payroll loans on personnel credit brought down the cost of the loan.
    Keywords: E31 ; E52 ; E62 ; C32 ; ddc:330 ; credit demand and supply ; bank lending channel ; balance sheet channel ; endogeneity ; method of instrumental variables ; method of three stages
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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