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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cancer causes & control 5 (1994), S. 88-89 
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Durch Ionenbeschuß wird bei vielen Metalloxiden eine an Sauerstoff verarmte, dünne Oberflächenschicht über dem stöchiometrischen Oxid aufgebaut, deren Charakterisierung mit Hilfe quantitativer AES und XPS gezeigt wird: Aus den Intensitätsverhältnissen unter Berücksichtigung der mittleren Elektronenaustrittstiefe kann das Molenbruchverhältnis Metall/Sauerstoff als Funktion der Schichtdicke erhalten werden. Diese wird durch Variation der effektiven Austrittstiefe (Emissionswinkelvariation) ermittelt. Aus der chemischen Verschiebung der XPS-Peaks des Metalls können Oxide niedrigerer Wertigkeitsstufen nachgewiesen und aus den zugehörigen Peakflächen deren Mengenanteil bestimmt werden. Am Beispiel von anodisch oxidiertem Ta2O5 (Dicke: 30 nm) unter Beschüß mit 3 keV Ar+-Ionen wurden folgende Ergebnisse erhalten: Die Dicke der gestörten Schicht beträgt 2,5±0,7 nm bei 20 At.-% Sauerstoff-Verlust (XTa = 0,5), wobei eine Reduktion bis zum metallischen Ta festgestellt wird, das neben den Oxiden TaO und TaO2 vorliegt.
    Notes: Summary During ion bombardment of many metallic oxides a thin oxygen depleted layer is built up on top of the stoichiometric oxide. The characterisation of this layer is demonstrated using quantitative AES and XPS: Based on the mean electron escape depth, the mole fractions of metal and oxygen are derived from the intensity ratio as a function of the layer thickness. The latter is determined by variation of the effective escape depth (emission angle variation). From the chemical shift of the metal XPS peaks lower oxides can be detected, with the respective peak areas giving their concentration. The example of anodic Ta2O5 (30 nm thickness) yields the following results with 3 keV Ar+ bombardment: The thickness of the altered layer with 20 at.-% oxygen loss (XTa = 0.5) is 2.5±0.7 nm, and the reduction proceeds to metallic Ta, which is present besides the oxides TaO and TaO2.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromatographia 23 (1987), S. 43-46 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Carbohydrate TMS-ethers ; Tautomeric equilibrium mixtures of aldoses ; MS and NMR identification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Equilibrium tautomers of aldopentoses (arabinose, ribose, xylose and lyxose) and aldohexones (allose, altrose, gulose, idose and talose) have been analyzed as their trimethyl-silyl ethers by capillary GC. Pentoses were separated on SE-54 and hexoses on OV-225. The four components of the tautomer equilibrium mixture have been identified using GC/MS and NMR data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromatographia 32 (1991), S. 379-382 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Three silylation methods for the gas chromatographic analysis of ketohexoses have been compared for yield and tautomeric composition of trimethylsilyl ethers. One of them has been applied to the analysis of milk monosaccharides and evaluated for precision and accuracy. Of the different stationary phases employed, OV-215 and AT-1000 were the best suited to resolve the TMS ethers of the studied sugars.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromatographia 33 (1992), S. 213-217 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Cheese volatiles ; Mixed phase ; Optimum phase composition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A mixed-phase capillary GC column has been designed for the separation of the compounds commonly present in the volatile fraction of cheeses. The design includes the calculation of the optimum phase concentration and the operating conditions. The evaluation of the resulting column indicates that its performance in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of cheese volatile compounds is better than those of other columns coated with a single stationary phase.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromatographia 43 (1996), S. 63-72 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ; Thermal desorption ; Plant volatiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Thermal desorption is a valuable method for the fractionation of plant volatile components, which can be carried out on-line with GC analysis. The use of coupled GC-MS affords additional qualitative information, of special interest for plant species whose composition has not been previously studied. Some examples of the application of automatic thermal desorption, coupled to GC-MS to the identification and characterization of volatile components of plants of different families are given.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromatographia 47 (1998), S. 427-432 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ; Oak wine barrels ; Volatile compounds from oak
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Characterization of French oak samples used in the ageing of wines and spirits can be achieved by determination of the composition of their volatile fraction. Soxhlet extraction and simultaneous extraction-distillation have been used to obtain different voltatile fractions. analysis of these fractions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables tentative identification of up to ninety six components including phenols, furans, terpenes, acids, esters, and lactones. The results obtained depend on the method and solvent used.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromatographia 25 (1988), S. 861-864 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Simultaneous distillation-extraction ; Cheese volatiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus proposed by Godefroot has been used for the GC study of volatile components of cheese. 5–10 g of cheese provide a fraction that can be directly injected into a GC or a GC/MS. Two capillary columns (SE-30 and SP-1000) were evaluated, the second one being adequate for quantitative determinations. Camphor was used as internal standard. The coefficients of variation ranged from 1.4 to 11.8. The technique can be used as a fast method for the characterization of cheeses from their volatile component concentrations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hernia 4 (2000), S. 135-139 
    ISSN: 1248-9204
    Keywords: Inguinal hernia ; Anaesthesia ; Extraperitoneal laparoscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The treatment of inguinal hernias using laparoscopy can be performed without violating the peritoneal cavity using the totally extraperitoneal technique (TEP). This procedure is usually done with general anaesthesia. The objective of this article is to evaluate the general and regional anaesthesia techniques in extraperitoneal laparoscopic surgery for treating inguinal hernias in an outpatient surgery unit. A prospective clinical study of 131 patients with uncomplicated inguinal hernia undergoing surgery using extraperitoneal laparoscopy was completed. Two study groups were established according to the anaesthesia technique used: general (n = 90) and regional (n = 41). We analyzed clinical data (age, sex, associated diseases, prior abdominal surgery, site and hernia type), intra-operative complications (bleeding, peritoneal rupture, subcutaneous emphysema, reconversion rate, haemodynamic stability, respiratory problems and degree of satisfaction), postoperative complications (haematomas, urinary retention, post lumbar puncture headaches, nausea, vomiting and postoperative pain) and recurrence rate. General anaesthesia was used significantly more in the cases of prior infra-umbilical surgery and bilateral hernias (p 〈 0.05). Statistically significant differences were not shown for intra- or post-operative complications. The rate of conversion was higher for general (5.5%) than for regional anaesthesia (2.4%). Recurrence was detected only in the regional anaesthesia group. In conclusion, general anaesthesia is not required for the performance of extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair; regional anaesthesia is a safe and efficient alternative.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-0875
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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