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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Keywords: Kontrollierte klinische Studie ; Kontrollierte klinische Studie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2., überarb. und erw. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3540369899 , 9783540369899 , 9783540369905
    Series Statement: Statistik und ihre Anwendungen
    DDC: 519.5
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Part of " Lecture notes in physics"
    Keywords: Photon-Hadron-Wechselwirkung ; Photon-Kern-Wechselwirkung ; Photon-Nukleon-Wechselwirkung ; Konferenzschrift 1990 ; Photon-Hadron-Wechselwirkung ; Photon-Kern-Wechselwirkung ; Photon-Nukleon-Wechselwirkung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    ISBN: 9783540529811 , 9783540462958
    Series Statement: Lecture notes in physics 365
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Keywords: Kontrollierte klinische Studie ; Kontrollierte klinische Studie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XXIII, 436 Seiten) , Diagramme
    Edition: Dritte, überarbeitete Auflage
    ISBN: 9783540851363
    Series Statement: Statistik und ihre Anwendungen
    DDC: 615.50724
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cardiovascular drugs and therapy 9 (1995), S. 361-362 
    ISSN: 1573-7241
    Keywords: neopterin ; restenosis ; macrophages ; percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Klinische Neuroradiologie 10 (2000), S. 46-50 
    ISSN: 1615-6706
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter: MRT ; Liquorfluss ; Artefakt ; AVM ; Spinal ; TSE-Sequenzen ; Key Words: MRI ; CSF-Flow ; Artifact ; AVM ; Spinal ; TSE-Sequences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract: MR-imaging of the spinal column using Turbo-Spin-Echo-Sequences (TSE) often shows flow-void structures resembling intraspinal vessels. Due to misinterpretation of those phenomenons invasive diagnostic procedures may be performed to diagnose an arteriovenous malformation (myelography, spinal angiography). The knowledge of the typical morphology of these csf-flow artifacts normally is sufficient to differentiate artifact and arteriovenous malformation. Using our modified gradient-echo-sequence it is possible to distinguish csf-flow artifact from arteriovenous malformation even in atypical cases preventing patients from superflous invasive procedures.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung: Die MR-Untersuchung der Wirbelsäule mit Turbo-Spin-Echo-Sequenzen (TSE) stellt häufig gefäßähnliche Flow-Void-Strukturen dar, die den Verdacht auf eine spinale arteriovenöse Malformation lenken und invasive Diagnostik nach sich ziehen können (Myelographie, spinale Angiographie). Bei Kenntnis, dass Liquorpulsationsartefakte gefäßähnliche Strukturen vortäuschen können, ist die Differentialdiagnose in der Regel allein aufgrund ihrer typischen Morphologie zu stellen. In atypischen Fällen lässt sich mit einer modifizierten Gradienten-Echo-Sequenz belegen, dass pulsatiler Liquorfluss Ursache des Signalverlusts im TSE-Bild ist, sodass weitere invasive Untersuchungen vermieden werden können.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurosurgical review 11 (1988), S. 231-237 
    ISSN: 1437-2320
    Keywords: Abducens nerve ; computer-assisted tomography ; multiple injuries ; traumatic lesions ; optic ; oculomotor ; trochlear nerves
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Traumatic lesions of the oculomotor and optic nerves are usually associated with multiple injuries which pose difficulties for radiological examination. In 54 patients with functional disturbances of the optic, oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nerve following severe multiple injuries, the initial computer tomographic examination was unable to document conclusively direct nerve damage. Indirect signs of nerve damage in the form of orbital and midface fractures were often found in the presence of optic and oculomotor nerve impairments, but seldom in the case of abducens nerve deficits. The causes of trochlear pareses could not be established. Thus, CT can only provide indirect evidence of injuries to the optic and oculomotor nerves. The nerve damage itself can only be demonstrated in a target examination made after the patient's condition has stabilized.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 185 (1965), S. 60-72 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The decay of the 4.4 min-Rh104m has been investigated by observing coincidences between conversion electrons and gamma quanta. The decay by a 77 keV−52 keV cascade has been confirmed. In addition, a highly converted (31±2) keV transition in coincidence with the known 97 keV gamma ray has been found. The multipole order of this transition has been determined asM3. The intensity of the 97 keV−31 keV cascade has been measured as 3.3 % of the intensity of the 77 keV−52 keV cascade. An indication of a 45 keV transition from the 97 keV level to the 52 keV level has been found with an intensity of at most 0.1 % of the intensity of the 77 keV−52 keV cascade.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Breast cancer research and treatment 54 (1999), S. 31-38 
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; high-dose chemotherapy ; randomized trials ; stem-cell transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the past ten years high-dose chemotherapy with autologous haematopoetic stem-cell support (HD-CT) has increasingly been used for breast cancer. But the vast majority of trials are small phase I/II studies showing until now not enough evidence that HD-CT is superior to conventional-dose chemotherapy (CD-CT). In contrast to this, the public perception of this treatment is different. Patients as well as physicians often uncritically believe in reports contrasting the positive results obtained in case series treated by HD-CT with those of historical control groups. This leads to the problem that many patients and also clinicians are not willing to participate in randomized trials on this topic. A critical assessment of current knowledge on the effectiveness of HD-CT in breast cancer is given. The problems related to the use of historical controls, in general, and especially in the setting of HD-CT are demonstrated. Using data of patients treated with CD-CT within trials of the German Breast Cancer Study Group (GBSG) it will be shown that results similarly favorable to those reported from patients treated with a high-dose regimen may be produced using quite simple selection mechanisms. Comparisons of patients treated with HD-CT with historical control groups of patients treated with CD-CT may be misleading. A valid treatment comparison is only possible by means of large randomized trials. Clinicians should participate in the ongoing trials and enter all eligible patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Breast cancer research and treatment 25 (1993), S. 235-245 
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; Cox regression ; histologic tumor grading ; node negative ; prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prognostic effect of histological tumor grade was evaluated in 1036 patients with early breast cancer (pT1 pN0 M0) entered into a trial comparing mastectomy and breast preserving treatment. All analyses were adjusted for the factors treatment, patients' age, and tumor size. Tumor grade was defined according to Bloom and Richardson based on the sum of scores assigned to each of three histological features: 1) degree of differentiation, 2) pleomorphism, and 3) mitotic index. The relative importance of these factors with regard to disease-free survival was evaluated. In univariate as well as in multivariate analyses the pleomorphism was the only factor showing a significant effect (univariate: p=0.0024, multivariate: p=0.015). It was investigated how the factors should be combined to define a histological grading score which yields the best possible classification of the patients with respect to prognosis. A new grading system was defined splitting the patients into three groups: 1) pleomorphism 1; 2) pleomorphism 2 or pleomorphism 3 and mitotic index 1; 3) pleomorphism 3 and mitotic index 2 or 3. This yields a good classification of the patients with respect to prognosis (p=0.0004). The prognostic effect of this score was compared with the effects of the grading systems proposed in the literature. According to Bloom and Richardson and in the modified version by Schauer and Weiss, grading is based on the sum of scores of the various histological factors. Therefore, the strong effect of the pleomorphism was diluted in these grading definitions (Bloom and Richardson: p=0.03, Schauer and Weiss: p=0.028). The grading system proposed by Le Doussalet al. consists only of the scores of pleomorphism and mitotic index (p=0.014). In summary, the factor pleomorphism showed a stronger effect on disease-free survival by itself than the grading systems proposed in the literature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Breast cancer research and treatment 42 (1997), S. 149-163 
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; classification schemes ; measure of separation ; node negative ; recurrence-free survival ; validation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Several prognostic classification schemes in node negative breastcancer are proposed, but only the Nottingham PrognosticIndex (NPI) seems to be sufficiently validated. Validation,which is a prerequisite for a sensible assessment,is not published for two recent proposals accordingto Glick et al. [1] and Rubens [2].The German Breast Cancer Study Group (GBSG) entered662 eligible patients in a prospective observational study.603 of them had complete data for seven’standard‘ prognostic factors and median follow-up is about5 years. As there is no accepted andinformative measure of separation for classification schemes presentlyavailable, we propose a new one and useit additionally to the well known logrank-test andKaplan-Meier estimates to investigate the predictive power ofthe three schemes. Significant differences in survival andrecurrence-free survival could be established for the NPIsubgroups but not for others where even theordering of the groups was different. With theCox model and the classification and regression treeapproach we develop two new proposals for thedifferentiation of subgroups of node negative patients. Asin the NPI, tumor size and grade arethe most important factors, but with a differentweighting scheme. Young age (≤ 40 years) andvery high estrogen receptor values (〉 300 fmol)in a small subgroup of patients were associatedwith worse prognosis. The new proposals showed abetter degree of separation, which demonstrates that animprovement seems possible using standard factors. Because themeasures of separation give an overoptimistic impression forthe new proposals, a validation with other studiesis necessary before a general recommendation can begiven.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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