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  • 1
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2014-08-02
    Description: In order to analyze the crystal transformation from hexagonal PbI 2 to CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 by the sequential (two-step) deposition process, perovskite CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 layers were deposited on flat and/or porous TiO 2 layers. Although the narrower pores using small nanoparticles prohibited the effective transformation, the porous-TiO 2 matrix was able to help the crystal transformation of PbI 2 to CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 by sequential two-step deposition. The resulting PbI 2 crystals in porous TiO 2 electrodes did not deteriorate the photovoltaic effects. Moreover, it is confirmed that the porous TiO 2 electrode had served the function of prohibiting short circuits between working and counter electrodes in perovskite solar cells.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-05-14
    Description: Article Perovskite solar cells have been limited by the use of relatively expensive organic compounds as hole-transporting materials. Here, Qin et al. use an inorganic hole conductor, CuSCN, in a lead halide perovskite solar cell and achieve power conversion efficiencies as high as 12.4%. Nature Communications doi: 10.1038/ncomms4834 Authors: Peng Qin, Soichiro Tanaka, Seigo Ito, Nicolas Tetreault, Kyohei Manabe, Hitoshi Nishino, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Michael Grätzel
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 177: Small Imaging Depth LIDAR and DCNN-Based Localization for Automated Guided Vehicle Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18010177 Authors: Seigo Ito Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka Mitsuhiko Ohta Hiroyuki Matsubara Masaru Ogawa We present our third prototype sensor and a localization method for Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs), for which small imaging LIght Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and fusion-based localization are fundamentally important. Our small imaging LIDAR, named the Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) LIDAR, uses a time-of-flight method and SPAD arrays. A SPAD is a highly sensitive photodetector capable of detecting at the single-photon level, and the SPAD LIDAR has two SPAD arrays on the same chip for detection of laser light and environmental light. Therefore, the SPAD LIDAR simultaneously outputs range image data and monocular image data with the same coordinate system and does not require external calibration among outputs. As AGVs travel both indoors and outdoors with vibration, this calibration-less structure is particularly useful for AGV applications. We also introduce a fusion-based localization method, named SPAD DCNN, which uses the SPAD LIDAR and employs a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN). SPAD DCNN can fuse the outputs of the SPAD LIDAR: range image data, monocular image data and peak intensity image data. The SPAD DCNN has two outputs: the regression result of the position of the SPAD LIDAR and the classification result of the existence of a target to be approached. Our third prototype sensor and the localization method are evaluated in an indoor environment by assuming various AGV trajectories. The results show that the sensor and localization method improve the localization accuracy.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 4
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    CSCanada
    Publication Date: 2012-02-02
    Description: In order to improve the thermal durability of dye-sensitized solar cells, epoxy polymer was coated on dyed-TiO 2 electrode to prevent dye desorption under heating condition over 80 °C.  The covering effect on epoxy polymer was confirmed using impedance spectroscopy.  Using the epoxy polymer coating with Z907 Ru dye and ionic liquid electrolyte, the DSC photovoltaic durability was improved up to 90 °C, which is the highest temperature published for the DSC durability test.  Although the epoxy polymer suppressed the DSC photovoltaic effect, it enhance the thermal durability; DSC coated epoxy polymer on the dyed-TiO 2 electrode was able to prolong the efficiency over 90% of the initial value at 90 °C for 550 hours. Key words: Dye-sensitized solar cells; Epoxy polymer; Ionic liquid electrolyte; Thermal durability; Heat test
    Electronic ISSN: 1923-8479
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by CSCanada
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  • 5
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    CSCanada
    Publication Date: 2012-12-02
    Description: AgInTe 2 micron-particles were synthesized by mechanical ball milling method. Only AgInTe 2 phase was obtained in the powder after ball milling from the mixture of elements (Ag, In, and Te). AgInTe 2 particles had the variation in the size and the biggest particle was approximately 2 µm. AgInTe 2 solar cells were fabricated as 〈AgInTe 2 /In 2 S 3 /TiO 2 /FTO〉 superstrate structure by doctor-blade printing, and were annealed at various temperatures under nitrogen ambient. AgInTe 2 after annealing showed high crystallinity and two band gaps of 0.67 and 0.86 eV. Although no photocurrent was observed after annealing below 350 °C, the photocurrent was observed in AgInTe 2 superstrate solar cells after annealing over 400 °C. The short-circuit photocurrent density strongly increased up to 18 mA/cm 2 for the samples annealed at 600 °C for 5 min. Key words: AgInTe 2 ; Solar cells; Printing method
    Electronic ISSN: 1923-8479
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by CSCanada
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  • 6
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    CSCanada
    Publication Date: 2012-06-11
    Description: CuInSe 2 powders synthesized by ball milling were printed on In 2 S 3 /TiO 2 /FTO/glass substrates, resulting in superstrate solar cells.  Although particle structure of CuInSe 2 in the layer remained after heating at 600 °C under N 2 gas, photovoltaic effects were observed; the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density were 0.45 V and 5.6 mA/cm 2 , respectively.  The effects of annealing time on the structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of CuInSe 2 were studied by scanning electron micrograph (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), t hermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV-Vis reflectance absorption spectroscopy.  The CuInSe 2 solar cells were printed in air ambient without vacuum processing and without toxic and explosive chemicals (e.g., hydrazine, H 2 Se and H 2 S), which can offer a promising strategy for future research and industrial investigation into cost-effective photovoltaic systems. Key words : Photovoltaic system; Photovoltaic effects; CuInSe 2 solar cells
    Electronic ISSN: 1923-8479
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by CSCanada
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  • 7
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2016-06-11
    Description: Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 double layer anti-reflection coating (ARC) film formed by spray pyrolysis was introduced for monocrystalline silicon solar cells as the nonvacuum processing method. The thickness of the Al 2 O 3 layer and TiO 2 compact layer was controlled by the volume of deposited precursor solution and confirmed by ellipsometry and scanning electron microscope. The average photovoltaic properties of photocurrent density ( J sc ), the open-circuit photovoltage ( V oc ), the fill factor ( FF ), and the photo energy conversion efficiency ( η ) were 37.0 mA/cm 2 , 590 mV, 0.712, and 15.5%, respectively. A significant improvement on J sc and η could be confirmed owing to the Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 ARC. According to the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and optical simulation with modeling for the reflectance properties, it was confirmed that C-H-based organics remained after the deposition of thin films. Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 double layer anti-reflection coating film formed by spray pyrolysis was introduced for monocrystalline silicon solar cells as a nonvacuum processing method. According to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and optical simulation with modeling for the reflectance properties, it was confirmed that C-H-based organics remained after the deposition of thin films.
    Electronic ISSN: 2050-0505
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 8
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Energies
    Publication Date: 2016-08-16
    Description: A non-vacuum processing method for preparing polymer-based ZrO2/TiO2 multilayer structure antireflection coating (ARC) films for crystalline silicon solar cells by spin coating is introduced. Initially, ZrO2, TiO2 and surface deactivated-TiO2 (SD-TiO2) based films were examined separately and the effect of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 film on the reflectivity on silicon surface was investigated. Degradation of the reflectance performance with increasing reflectivity of up to 2% in the ultraviolet region was confirmed. No significant change of the reflectance was observed when utilizing SD-TiO2 and ZrO2 films. Average reflectance (between 300 nm–1100 nm) of the silicon surface coated with optimized polymer-based ZrO2 single or ZrO2/SD-TiO2 multilayer composite films was decreased down to 6.5% and 5.5%, respectively. Improvement of photocurrent density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency (η) of fabricated silicon solar cells owing to the ZrO2/SD-TiO2 multilayer ARC could be confirmed. The photovoltaic properties of Jsc, the open-circuit photo voltage (VOC), the fill factor (FF), and the η were 31.42 mA cm−2, 575 mV, 71.5% and 12.91%. Efficiency of the solar cells was improved by the ZrO2-polymer/SD-TiO2 polymer ARC composite layer by a factor of 0.8% with an increase of Jsc (2.07 mA cm−2) compared to those of fabricated without the ARC.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 9
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: Due to the high conversion efficiency, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 ) solar cells are investigated for new practical energy resources for our future society. However, the perovskite solar cells have been quite unstable devices. In this manuscript, the history of perovskite solar cells is introduced, and then, the efforts to improve and understand the stability issue of perovskite solar cells are summarized.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 70 (1983), S. 367-389 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Alkali metals ; Alkaline earth metals ; Barium ; Calcium ; Ceasium ; Lithium ; Magnesium ; Potassium ; Rubidium ; Sodium ; Strontium ; Temperate forest
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Absorption and accumulation of alkali (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and alkaline earth (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) metals were investigated as taxonomic characteristics (in 62 plant species). Leaf and soil samples were collected from 9 sites in temperature forest in Japan and the above mentioned elements were analyzed. Considerable differences were found among species in their ability to accumulate alkali and alkaline earth metals. Very high concentrations of Li (45 ppm, D.W.), K (37×103 ppm), Rb (159 ppm) and Cs (8.2 ppm) were detected inLastrea japonica which were about 412, 12, 27 and 6 times higher than those of the species with the lowest concentrations. Na content was high inAcer micranthum (358 ppm) which was 16 times higher than species with the lowest concentration. Other species containing high levels of alkali metals wereHydrangea macrophylla, Struthiopteris niponica, Clethra barbinervis. Mean discrimination ratio (D.R.) for all investigated plant species for Li, Na, Rb, and Cs to K were 1.7, 0.44, 0.9 and 1.8 respectively. High concentrations of alkaline earth metals Ca (36×103 ppm), Sr (345 ppm), and Ba (241 ppm) were found in the leaves ofHydrangea paniculata which were about 31, 84, and 72 times higher than those for the species with the lowest concentration. Mg was very high inStruthiopteris niponica (83×102 ppm). Other species with high concentrations of alkaline earth metals belonged to the genus Viburnum. Mean D.Rs. for Mg, Sr, and Bavs Ca were 1.0, 0.7 and 0.08. Principal component analysis of interrelationships between the mineral content in leaf tissues indicated that these elements could be classified into 2 groups with respect to their accumulation behavior in plants. The alkali metals K, Li, Rb, and Cs behaved similarly in their accumulation in leaves but Na behaved independently. Alkaline earth metals Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba were also found to behave similarly in their accumulation. Factors scores of 1st and 2nd components revealed three groups of plant species: alkaliphilic, alkaline earthphilic, and neutral (non-accumulators).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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