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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This article estimates the market value of public education by comparing standardized test scores of students in public and private schools. The idea is to assign to the education of each public school student a market value equivalent to the tuition paid by private school students with similar test score results. The implementation requires an expenditure survey, or other database to provide information on tuitions, and standardized test scores available for both private and public schools. This article uses Brazilian test score data, which are particularly good. The main results are not surprising. Pre-school, primary, and secondary education are all highly progressive government transfers. Furthermore, since their market value is superior to public expenditures in each of these educational levels, they are also welfare enhancing. The flip side is that public higher education is both highly regressive and welfare reducing.
    Keywords: I24 ; ddc:330 ; public education ; value of education ; educational proficiency
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Owner-occupied housing and public infrastructure services are a relevant part of the income distribution whose impacts have not yet been adequately studied, at least not from the distributive point of view. This paper suggests a way to find the market value for these services using hedonic prices. While far from new, this methodology is nevertheless useful in assigning values to these services. The paper uses Brazilian data from 1995, 2004, and 2014 to impute rental values for owner occupied housing and the associated infrastructure services. The results are that imputation of housing services considerably reduces inequality and that public infrastructure services have become more progressive as their expansion brings these services to increasingly poorer households.
    Keywords: D31 ; ddc:330 ; hedonic prices ; public infrastructure services ; imputed rent ; income distribution
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper calculates effective tariffs by industrial sector for Brazil from 2000 to 2015. Effective tariff differs from nominal tariff in that it takes into consideration the protection given to industrial inputs so that a sector whose products are protected by high tariffs may also be burdened by high tariffs on its inputs, leading to a lower effective tariff. Two series are calculated: 2000 to 2009 and 2010 to 2015. The reason for this is that the National Accounts changed their classification of economic sectors in 2010. Results indicate that: i) effective rates of protection are highly varied in Brazil, according to sector; ii) effective rates of protection have fallen slightly in the 15 years from 2000 to 2015; and iii) some sectors have seen their rates of protection vary considerably over this fifteen-year period, but in most sectors the ERP did not vary much.
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; trade policy ; effective rates of protection ; nominal rates of protection
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Publication Date: 2019-06-13
    Description: The increase in inequality over the last few decades in most of the world has been a constant source of concern for policymakers and analysts. Inequality can hinder economic growth, reduce well-being and increase poverty. It also fuels social unrest and reduces social cohesion. Great attention has been given to the role of fiscal redistribution (or lack thereof) in the inequality debate, but perhaps mechanisms that involve money passing directly from one economic agent to another, rather than through the hands of the State, deserve more attention. In a time of weakened labour unions and decreasing income mobility, can the minimum wage once again shine as a market-friendly and effective policy tool? [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Minimum ; wage ; global ; challenges ; perspectives
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This text discusses the Bolsa Família Program, its institutional design, implementation issues, its impacts and possibilities for future evolution. We discuss the institutional division of responsibilities, benefits, conditionalities and federative arrangements. With regards to implementation issues, we discuss the vitally important Single Registry of Beneficiaries, targeting, coverage and the discussion about exit strategies for beneficiary families. We also briefly review the literature on Bolsa Família`s impacts upon inequality, poverty, nutrition, labor supply, and political participation. We conclude that at present Bolsa Família is neither entirely a social protection program nor a program for the generation of opportunities. In the near future, a definition will be necessary because the two objectives are incompatible in a single program.
    Keywords: I38 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper investigates the main determinants of grade repetition using the Brazilian school census between 2007 and 2010. For the first time such a study is conducted with all students in a panel. We begin with a brief analysis of attrition in the school census and then estimate logistic regressions for the probability of non-approval year-by-year. Variables of physical disability, repetition in the previous year and length of the school day are the most important determinants. Finally, we estimate a panel logit considering time effects.
    Keywords: I21 ; C33 ; C35 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The objective of this text is to compare various approaches to defining poverty lines. The Cost of Basic Needs approach has been the most widely used method in Brazil and Latin America, there are various alternatives. In addition to the Cost of Basic Needs and Food Energy Intake methods, the text also discusses multidimensional poverty lines, not widely used in Brazil but quite popular in the rest of Latin America. Administrative poverty lines, such as half of a minimum wage or a dollar a day in purchasing power parity terms, are also discussed. Finally, the text also discusses relative and subjective poverty lines, widely used in the European OECD countries. The text's main conclusion is that although some approaches are better than others, this depends on the context. There is no perfect and criticism-proof method for defining who is and who is not poor.
    Keywords: I32 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This text argues for higher Personal Income Tax levels. We show that, for all countries for which tax information is available, Brazil is the one in which Personal Income Tax collection as a percentage of the gross tax burden is the lowest. Personal Income Taxes account for about 6% of the Gross Tax Burden, slightly more than 2% of GDP, and slightly more than 4% of family income (according to the PNAD household survey). We show that this is due both to the fact that tax brackets are so high so as to exempt 85% of income earners from paying any income tax and the fact that our highest tax bracket is only 27.5%, which is lower than the maximum tax bracket of almost all countries for which tax information is available. Using Household and Expenditure Surveys, we estimate the Personal Income Tax Concentration Coefficients at between 89 and 92, which show a very progressive tax schedule. We also estimate that families who live on self employment and business income evade or avoid 80% of their personal income tax liabilities but that families who live off employment income evade or avoid only 20%. Finally, we analyze the impact of a series of theoretical changes in Personal Income Tax rules and conclude that they would approximately double Personal Income Tax collection. If the additional revenue were compensated by a reduction in a regressive tax, such as Contribuição para o Financiamento da Seguridade Social (Cofins), so as to hold the total Tax Burden constant, the result would be a 2,3 point fall in the Gini coefficient.
    Keywords: H23 ; H24 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The effect of school inputs upon educational outcomes has been extensively studies in the literature but there are still no conclusions as to its impacts. This paper presents results that suggest a strong impact of inputs upon age-grade lag for Brazilian primary schools between 1998 and 2005. We use more than one estimation method, but the results we believe are those from a fixed effects model based upon a panel of schools. The data come from the annual School Census from 1998 to 2005 which provides information on a cohort of 132.603 schools; municipal data come from the 2000 Demographic Census. Our most important result is that school inputs have strong positive effects upon educational outcomes, particularly in the case of those schools whose inputs are especially low.
    Keywords: I21 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungsinvestition ; Allgemeinbildende Schule ; Bildungsabschluss ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This text proposes a methodology for classifying the demographic bonus in education into relative and absolute components. According to this definition, a relative demographic bonus means that school age-population is increasing more slowly than total population, making more resources available, relative to population size, for education. An absolute bonus means that school age population is actually shrinking, making more resources per child available in absolute terms. The definition is operationalized through a decomposition of changes in net enrollment rates. This methodology is then applied to eleven Latin-American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Uruguay, Venezuela, Argentina, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Panama). The results indicate that the only country enjoying an absolute demographic bonus in education in Brazil, although Mexico and Panama are reaping large relative bonuses. Another group of countries is composed by Uruguay, Argentina, Cost Rica, and Ecuador, in which changes in net enrollment rates have been small and population stable, meaning there is nothing to explain or decompose. Finally, a group of principally small countries composed of Bolivia, Venezuela, Honduras, and Guatemala still enjoy only either a small demographic bonus or even no bonus at all. Surprisingly, it was in these countries that the greatest increases in net enrollment rates are observed, suggesting that demographics, while important, are not the only determinant of educational results.
    Keywords: J11 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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