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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the small marsupialSminthopsis macroura were activated by Ca2+ and Sr2+ so that their isometric force properties could be determined. The properties characterized were the shape, slope and positions of the curves generated by plotting isometric force vs. pCa (−log10[Ca2+]) and pSr (−log10[Sr2+]), the maximum Ca2+-activated and Sr2+-activated tension (Ncm−2) and the frequency of force oscillations of myofibrillar origin during submaximal activations. The effect of caffeine on force activation was also studied. Apart from the fibres which exhibited physiological characteristics similar to those observed previously in mammalian fibres, a large proportion of fibres exhibited characteristics or combinations of characteristics which have not previously been described from healthy adult mammals. The results from 32 soleus fibres showed that only 23 could be categorized as either typical fast-twitch or slow-twitch fibres. The rest possessed unusual physiological characteristics which suggested the co-existence in the same fibre of Ca2+-regulatory and contractile properties from different categories of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibres. We could distinguish two major fast twitch populations of tibialis anterior fibres which occurred in similar proportions. There were significant differences in the maximum tension produced by some of these groups of fibres. The tibialis anterior population fibres produced the highest maximum tension (T o Ca 44.6±4.6 Ncm−2, n=7) while the soleus combined type fibres produced the lowest maximum tension (T o Ca 18.1±2.1 Ncm−2, n=8). Our physiological observations of the Ca2+-activation and Sr2+-activation properties of soleus fibres in this study provide new evidence that there can be combinations of characteristics in single fibres and a continuum of properties between fibre types in normal mammalian skeletal muscles. These animals can therefore be used as a source of fibres with a wide range of properties.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this study, we investigated the effect of the Ca2+ pump inhibitor, 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone on the function of the contractile apparatus, Ca2+ uptake, the permeability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to Ca2+ and excitation-contraction coupling, in mechanically skinned muscle fibres of the rat and toad. 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone had no significant effect on the maximum force and Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in rat and toad fibres at concentrations of 20 and 5 μM respectively. In rat fibres, 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone was found to inhibit sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ loading in a dose dependent manner, with a half maximal effect at 2 μM. In toad fibres, 5 μM 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone completely blocked sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ loading. Exposure to 5 mM BAPTA revealed a small resting sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak in unstimulated rat fibres. This Ca2+ leak was not significantly affected by the presence of 20 μM 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone, suggesting that 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone does not substantially block or activate the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels. Depolarisation-induced force responses elicited in rat and toad skinned fibres were not significantly affected by 0.5 μM 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone. In the rat fibres, 5 and 20 μM 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone greatly increased the peak and duration of initial depolarisation-induced force responses, while subsequent responses were reduced. 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone did not affect excitation contraction coupling, as depolarisation-induced force responses similar to initial controls could be elicited after 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone exposure, provided that the initial Ca2+ release in 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone was chelated with 0.5 mM EGTA (to prevent Ca2+-dependent damage) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum was reloaded with Ca2+. In the toad fibres, 5 μM 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone had a similar effect on depolarisation-induced force responses to that observed at 20 μM 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone in rat fibres. This study shows that 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone specifically and reversibly inhibits the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump in skeletal muscle and therefore, 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone could be a valuable tool for investigating the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in Ca2+ homeostasis in skeletal muscle.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Mechanically skinned fibre preparations from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat were used to test whether a rise in myoplasmic [NH4 +] in the range 2–10 mm interferes with the mechanism of excitation-contraction coupling in fast-twitch mammalian muscle. Under our conditions (pH 7.10, Mg2+ 1 mm, temperature 23° C), [NH4 +] up to 10 mm had little effect on the Ca+-activated force and on the peak of the t-system depolarization-induced force response. However, the duration of the depolarization-induced force response was decreased significantly at [NH4 +] ≥2 mm. From these data we conclude that the intracellular accumulation of NH4 + is not likely to play a major role in fatigue. Nevertheless, the build up of NH4 + during fatigue, may have a significant inhibitory effect on the force output by decreasing the duration of the t-system depolarization-induced activation of the contractile apparatus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The main objective of this study was to analyse glycogen in single muscle fibres, using a recently developed microfluorometric method which detects subpicomol amounts of NADPH, glucose and glycogen (as glucosyl units) (detection limit 0.16–0.17pmol in a 25nl sample) without fluorochrome amplification. The fibres were freshly dissected from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of the cane toad (Bufo marinus), and were mechanically skinned under paraffin oil to gain access to the intracellular compartments. The results show that: (1) glycogen concentrations in toad skeletal muscle fibres range between 25.8 and 369mmol glucosyl units/litre fibre volume; (2) there is a large variation in glycogen content between individual fibres from the iliofibularis muscle of one animal; (3) there are seasonal differences in the glycogen content of toad single muscle fibres; (4) the total amount of glycogen in single muscle fibres of the toad does not decrease significantly when storing the tissue, under paraffin oil, at 20–25°C for up to 6h or at 4°C for up to 24h; and (5) 15–26% of fibre glycogen can be washed in an aqueous solution at pH 5–7, within 5min, while 74–85% of fibre glycogen remains associated with the washed skinned fibre, even after 40min exposure of the skinned fibre preparation to the aqueous environment. The retention of most glycogen in the fibre preparation after mechanical removal of the plasma membrane and extensive washing indicates that in toad skeletal muscle fibres the largest proportion of glycogen is tightly bound to intracellular structures. The results also show that the skinned muscle fibre preparation is well suited for microfluorometric glycogen determination, since low molecular weight non-glycogen contributors to the fluorescence signal can be removed from the myoplasmic space prior to the glycogen hydrolysis step.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 15 (1996), S. 2033-2035 
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 17 (1998), S. 377-379 
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 33 (1998), S. 5131-5136 
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The influence of supersolidus liquid phase sintering (SLPS) on the density of sintered components manufactured using a Ni-base superalloy powder (N18) has been studied. A compression moulding technique was employed to simulate the metal injection moulding (MIM) process using coarse N18 powder, with a particle size distribution of 40–63 μm, as opposed to fine powders of less than 10μm normally used in conventional MIM. The study has demonstrated how the problem of low sintered density, encountered in solid-state sintering using coarse powders, can been overcome by SLPS and that the sintered densities of the N18 powder via the moulding process route were comparable with those produced by conventional die pressing and sintering.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 29 (1994), S. 5787-5793 
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The failure of titanium metal-matrix composites (MMCs) strengthened with monofilament carbon-coated sigma SiC fibres has been studied following exposure at a temperature of 900
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 35 (2000), S. 1205-1211 
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Structural properties such as flexural moduli and strength have been measured for a range of porous alumina specimens of different initial powder sizes and final porosities, sintered using the capsule-free hot isostatic pressing method. This processing method produces a porous body in which the closed porosity is negligible. The relationship of these structural properties to total porosity has been investigated. The results indicate that both a power and an exponential function could adequately describe the porosity dependence of flexural strength. The strength values obtained were test method dependent, and were significantly lower for specimens with sintering aids. A power law model based on a critical porosity, as proposed by Phani, gave the best fit for the modulus measurement data. No dependence of mechanical properties on particle size was observed. The strength measurement results did not appear to support suggestions that better strength could be obtained by the capsule-free hot isostatic pressing method than conventional sintering, as reported elsewhere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 10 (1991), S. 699-700 
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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