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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematische Annalen 312 (1998), S. 341-362 
    ISSN: 1432-1807
    Keywords: Mathematics Subject Classification (1991):35B65, 35J70
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW), Vienna Institute of Demography (VID)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-27
    Description: Projecting the religious composition of the population is relevant for several reasons. It is a key characteristic influencing several aspects of individual behaviour, including marriage and childbearing patterns. The religious composition is also a driver of social cohesion and increased religious diversity could imply a more fragmented society. In this context, Austria finds itself in a period of transition where the long-time dominant Roman-Catholic church faces a serious decline in membership, while other groups, particularly the seculars and the Muslims, increase their influence. We project religions in Austria until 2051 by considering relative fertility rates, religion-specific net migration, and the rate of conversion between religions and transmission of religious beliefs from parents to children. We find that the proportion of Roman Catholics is likely to decrease from 75% in 2001 to less than 50% by the middle of the century, unless current trends in fertility, secularisation or immigration are to change. The share of Protestants is estimated to reach a level between 3 and 5% in 2051. The most uncertain projections are for those without religious affiliation: they could number as little as 10% and as many as 33%. The Muslim population - which grew from 1% in 1981 to 4% in 2001 - will, according to our estimates, represent 14 to 26% of the population by 2051. If current fertility trends remain constant, Islam could represent the majority religion for those below 15 years of age in 2051. Other religion categories are estimated to constitute 7-12% of the population by 2051.
    Description: Die Struktur und Mitgliederzahlen der österreichischen Religionsgemeinschaften haben sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten deutlich verändert. Die römisch-katholische Kirche zählt zwar nach wie vor die meisten Mitglieder, ihre Zahl ist jedoch stark zurückgegangen. Dieselben Tendenzen lassen sich auch in der Evangelischen Kirche erkennen. Die Zahl der Muslime in Österreich sowie der Personen ohne Religionsbekenntnis hat dagegen stark zugenommen. Was bringen die nächsten Jahrzehnte in Hinblick auf die Größe und Altersstruktur der Glaubensgemeinschaften in Österreich? In dieser demographischen Studie wurden Zahlen aus den Volkszählungen von 1981 bis 2001 analysiert. Es wurden die Entwicklung der Einund Austritte, das Fertilitätsverhalten der unterschiedlichen Religionsgemeinschaften sowie die Migration der letzten Jahrzehnte betrachtet. Schließlich wurden alternative Szenarien für die zukünftige Struktur der Glaubensgemeinschaften in Österreich bis zum Jahr 2051 berechnet.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Austria ; religion ; projections ; Catholics ; secularization ; Muslim ; migration ; Religion ; Katholizismus ; Islam ; Prognose ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Internationale Wanderung ; Österreich
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Trier: University of Trier, Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-18
    Description: The reform introduced in Poland in 2009 substantially and abruptly reduced the number of workers eligible for early retirement. This paper evaluates the causal effects of this reform on labor force participation and exit to retirement. We use rich rotating panel from the Polish Labor Force Survey and exploit the discontinuity imposed by this reform. We find a statistically significant, but economically small discontinuity at the timing of the reform. The placebo test shows no similar effects in earlier or later quarters, but in a vast majority of specifications the discontinuity is not larger for the treated individuals, i.e. those whose occupation lost eligibility. We interpret these results as follows: the changes in the eligibility criteria were not instrumental in fostering the participation rates among the affected cohort, i.e. the immediate contribution to increased labor force participation of these cohorts is not economically large.
    Keywords: J14 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; early retirement ; regression discontinuity ; Poland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: This paper provides evidence on the role of non-base wage components as a channel for firms to adjust labour costs in the event of adverse shocks. It uses data from a firm-level survey for 25 European countries that covers the period 2010-2013. We find that firms subject to nominal wage rigidities, which prevent them from adjusting base wages, are more likely to cut non-base wage components in order to adjust labour costs when needed. Firms thus use non-base wage components as a buffer to overcome base wage rigidity. We further show that while non-base wage components exhibit some degree of downward rigidity, they do so to a lesser extent than base wages.
    Keywords: J30 ; J32 ; C81 ; P5 ; ddc:330 ; downward nominal wage rigidity ; bonuses ; firm survey ; European Union ; Lohnrigidität ; Leistungsentgelt ; Arbeitskosten ; Schock ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: Old-age pensions in the NDC systems reflect the accumulated lifetime labour income. Interrupted careers and differences in the employment rates, particularly between men and women will have a significant impact on pension incomes in NDC countries. In the paper, we compare the labour market developments in four countries: Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden. There are pronounced differences in the labour market participation in the four countries: high levels of employment in Germany and Sweden are in contrast with low levels of employment in Italy and Poland. In the latter two countries, there is also a large gender gap in the labour market participation and employment pathways. Lower employment rates and gender pay gaps, as well as country-specific employment paths are important causes of differences in expected pension levels, but there are also differences due to the design of pension system and demographic developments. Prolonging working lives and reducing gender gaps in employment and pay, particularly for those at risk of interrupted careers, is key to ensure decent old-age pensions in the future. We argue that the pension systems' design modifications that weaken the link between contribution and benefits would not solve the challenge of providing adequate old-age pensions to people with interrupted careers. On the contrary, it would make the pension systems less sustainable, while the problem would be more challenging in the future.
    Keywords: D15 ; H55 ; J16 ; J26 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; NDC ; old-age pensions ; lifetime labour income ; gender pay gap ; interrupted carriers ; sequence analysis ; employment path
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: This paper uses information from a rich firm-level survey on wage and price-setting procedures, in around 15,000 firms in 15 European Union countries, to investigate the relative importance of internal versus external factors in the setting of wages of newly hired workers. The evidence suggests that external labour market conditions are less important than internal pay structures in determining hiring pay, with internal pay structures binding even more often when there is labour market slack. When explaining their choice firms allude to fairness considerations and the need to prevent a potential negative impact on effort. Despite the lower importance of external factors in all countries there is significant cross-country variation in this respect. Cross-country differences are found to depend on institutional factors (bargaining structures); countries in which collective agreements are more prevalent and collective agreement coverage is higher report to a greater extent internal pay structures as the main determinant of hiring pay. Within-country differences are found to depend on firm and workforce characteristics; there is a strong association between the use of external factors in hiring pay, on the one hand, and skills (positive) and tenure (negative) on the other.
    Keywords: J31 ; J41 ; ddc:330 ; business cycle ; employee turnover ; internal pay structure ; newly hired workers ; survey data ; wage rigidity ; Lohnrigidität ; Lohnstruktur ; Humankapital ; Arbeitsmobilität ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: The reform introduced in Poland in 2009 substantially and abruptly reduced the number of workers eligible for early retirement. This paper evaluates the causal effects of this reform on labor force participation and exit to retirement. We use rich rotating panel from the Polish Labor Force Survey and exploit the discontinuity imposed by this reform. We find a statistically significant, but economically small discontinuity at the timing of the reform. The placebo test shows no similar effects in earlier or later quarters, but in a vast majority of specifications the discontinuity is not larger for the treated individuals, i.e. those whose occupation lost eligibility. We interpret these results as follows: the changes in the eligibility criteria were not instrumental in fostering the participation rates among the affected cohort, i.e. the immediate contribution to increased labor force participation of these cohorts is not economically large.
    Keywords: J14 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; early retirement ; regression discontinuity ; Poland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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