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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 24 (1999), S. 1067-1074 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Adenosine A2 receptors ; NECA binding ; guanine nucleotides ; glutamate analog ; cAMP ; chicks
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Binding properties of the subtypes of adenosine A2 receptors in membrane preparations and the effects of adenosine receptor ligands on cAMP accumulation in slices from the optic tectum of neonatal chicks have been investigated. [3H]2-[4-(2-p-carboxyethyl)phenylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxaminoadenosine (CGS 21680), a selective ligand for adenosine A2a receptors, did not bind to optic tectal membranes, as observed with rat striatal membranes. CGS 21680 also did not induce cyclic AMP accumulation in optic tectum slices. However, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), 2-chloro-adenosine or adenosine induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase on cyclic AMP accumulation in this preparation. [3H]NECA binds to fresh non-washed-membranes obtained from optic tectum of chicks, displaying one population of binding sites, which can be displaced by NECA, 8-phenyltheophylline, 2-chloro-adenosine, but is not affected by CGS 21680. The estimated KD value was 400.90 ± 80.50 nM and the Bmax was estimated to be 2.51 ± 0.54 pmol/mg protein. Guanine nucleotides, which modulate G-proteins activity intracellularly, are also involved in the inhibition of glutamate responses by acting extracellularly. Moreover, we have previously reported that guanine nucleotides potentiate, while glutamate inhibits, adenosine-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in slices from optic tectum of chicks. However, the guanine nucleotides, GMP or GppNHp and the metabotropic glutamate receptors agonist, 1S,3R-ACPD did not alter the [3H]NECA binding observed in fresh non-washed-membranes. Therefore, the adenosine A2 receptor found in the optic tectum must be the adenosine A2b receptor which is available only in fresh membrane preparations, and its not modulated by guanine nucleotides or glutamate analogs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 25 (2000), S. 181-188 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Adenosine ; guanine nucleotides ; GMP ; adenosine A2 receptors ; glutamate ; hippocampus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Guanine nucleotides (GN) have been implicated in many intracellular mechanisms. Extracellular actions, probably as glutamate receptor antagonists, have also been recently attributed to these compounds. GN may have a neuroprotective role by inhibiting excitotoxic events evoked by glutamate. Effects of extracellular GN on adenosine-evoked cellular responses have also been reported. However, the exact mechanism of such interaction is not known. In the present study, we showed that GN potentiated adenosine-induced cAMP accumulation in slices of hippocampus from young rats. However, neither GMP nor the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, 1S,3R-ACPD, inhibited the binding of the adenosine receptor agonist [3H]NECA (when binding to adenosine A2 receptors), or the binding of the adenosine A2a receptor agonist [3H]CGS 21680 in hippocampal membrane preparations. GppNHp, probably by interacting with G-proteins, decreased [3H]CGS 21680 binding. [3H]GMP binding was assayed in order to evaluate the GN sites which are not G-proteins. [3H]GMP binding was inhibited by GMP and GppNHp, but not by 1S,3R-ACPD. The interaction of endogenous adenosine with the GMP-binding sites was determined by incubating membranes in the presence or absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA). NECA, CADO, CGS 21680 and CPA (only at the highest concentration used) increased GMP binding in the presence of ADA. However, in the absence of ADA, the control levels of GMP binding were as high as in the presence of added ADA plus adenosine agonists, indicating that endogenous adenosine modulates the binding of GMP. If this site has a neuroprotective role, adenosine may be increasing its neuromodulator and proposed protective action.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 23 (1998), S. 183-188 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glutamate ; 1S,3R-ACPD ; guanine nucleotides ; mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been shown to modulate adenylate cyclase activity via G-proteins. In the present study we report similar results to the previously observed in the literature, showing that glutamate and the metabotropic agonists, 1S,3R-ACPD or quisqualate induced cAMP accumulation in hippocampal slices of young rats. Moreover, guanine nucleotides GTP, GDP or GMP, inhibited the glutamate-induced cAMP accumulation. By measuring LDH activity in the buffer surrounding the slices, we showed that the integrity of the slices was maintained, indicating that the effect of guanine nucleotides was extracellular. GMP, GDPβ-S or Gpp(NH)p abolished quisqualate-induced cAMP accumulation. GDPβ-S or Gpp(NH)p but not GMP inhibited 1S,3R-ACPD-induced cAMP accumulation. The response evoked by glutamate was also abolished by the mGluR antagonists: L-AP3 abolished glutamate-induced cAMP accumulation in a dose-dependent manner and MCPG was effective only at the 2 mM dose. DNQX was ineffective. We are reporting here, an inhibition induced by guanine nucleotides, via an extracellular site (s), similar to the observed with classical glutamate antagonists on a cellular response evoked by mGluR agonists.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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