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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Weinheim : Wiley-VCH
    Associated volumes
    Keywords: Optik ; Wörterbuch ; Optik ; Wörterbuch
    Type of Medium: Book
    ISBN: 3527403205
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Book
    Book
    Basel [u.a.] : Birkhäuser
    Keywords: Biochemische Analyse ; Physiologische Chemie ; Chemische Analyse ; Biotechnologie ; Chemische Analyse ; Analytical biochemistry Methodology ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Biochemische Analyse ; Physiologische Chemie ; Chemische Analyse ; Biotechnologie ; Chemische Analyse
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: X, 331 S. , Ill., graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 3764365897 , 3764365900
    Series Statement: Methods and tools in biosciences and medicine
    DDC: 660.6
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Cham, [Switzerland] : : Springer,
    Keywords: Medical informatics. ; Human-computer interaction. ; Neural networks (Computer science) ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (345 pages) : , color illustrations.
    ISBN: 9783319172729 (e-book)
    ISSN: 2197-3741
    Series Statement: Health Informatics,
    DDC: 610.285
    Parallel Title: Print version: Cognitive informatics for biomedicine : human computer interaction in healthcare.
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Cell Biology International Reports 7 (1983), S. 501-502 
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pediatric nephrology 4 (1990), S. 276-283 
    ISSN: 1432-198X
    Keywords: Hemolytic uremic syndrome ; Escherichia coli 0157∶H7 ; Shiga-like toxin ; Endothelial cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One of the requirements for an agent to cause hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is its ability to injure endothelial cells. Shiga-like toxin (SLT) can do this. SLT is produced byEscherichia coli andShigella dysenteriae serotype 1; both have been implicated as causes of typical HUS. Endothelial cells have receptors (GB3) for SLT and the toxin can inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis, thereby causing cell death. Glomerular endothelial cell injury or death results in a decreased glomerular filtration rate and many of the perturbations seen in HUS. It is no longer certain that hemolysis is the result of a microangiopathy. Cell injury results in release of von Willebrand multimers; if these are ultra-large, thrombosis may ensue. There is also increasing evidence that neutrophils have a role in the pathogenesis of typical HUS.Streptococcus pneumoniae can also cause HUS and care must be taken to avoid giving plasma to patients withS. pneumoniae-associated HUS. There is compelling evidence that types of HUS are inherited by autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant modes. Patients with autosomal recessive HUS may have recurrent episodes. Mortality and morbidity rates are high for the inherited forms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmaceutical research 16 (1999), S. 241-248 
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: camptothecin ; PLGA ; microclimate pH ; drug stability ; pH-sensitive probe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. The camptothecin (CPT) analogue, 10-hydroxycamptothecin (10-HCPT) has been shown previously to remain in its acid-stable (and active) lactone form when encapsulated in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (1). The purpose of this study was to determine the principal mechanism(s) of 10-HCPT stabilization. Methods. CPTs were encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 microspheres by standard solvent evaporation techniques. Microspheres were eroded in pH 7.4 buffer at 37°C. The ratio of encapsulated lactone to carboxylate was determined by HPLC as a function of time, initial form of drug encapsulated, fraction of co-encapsulated Mg(OH)2, CPT lipophilicity, and drug loading. Two techniques were developed to assess the microclimate pH, including: i) measurement of H+ content of the dissolved microspheres in an 80:20 acetonitrile/H2O mixture and ii) confocal microscopy of an encapsulated pH-sensitive dye, fluorescein. Results. The encapsulated carboxylate converted rapidly to the lactone after exposure to the release media, indicating the lactone is favored at equilibrium in the microspheres. Upon co-encapsulation of Mg(OH)2, the trend was reversed, i.e., the lactone rapidly converted to the carboxylate form. Measurement of -log(hydronium ion activity) (pa*H) of dissolved microspheres with pH-electrode and pH mapping with fluorescein revealed the presence of an acidic microclimate. From the measurements of H+ and water contents of particles hydrated for 3 days, a microclimate pH was estimated to be in the neighborhood of 1.8. The co-encapsulation of Mg(OH)2 could both increase the pa*H reading and neutralize pH in various regions of the microsphere interior. Varying the drug lipophilicity and loading revealed that the precipitation of the lactone could also stabilize CPT. Conclusions. PLGA microspheres prepared by the standard solvent evaporation techniques develop an acidic microclimate that stabilizes the lactone form of CPTs. This microclimate may be neutralized by co-encapsulating a base such as Mg(OH)2, as suggested by previous work with poly(ortho esters) (2).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-9023
    Keywords: calorimetry ; crystallography ; drug design ; ligand binding ; molecular recognition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The development of reliable, transferable methods that can compute the energy of interaction between protein sand ligands is a major challenge for computational chemistry. Understanding the energetics ofprotein-ligand interactions would not only provide powerful tools for prediction in structure-assisted ligand and library design, but also enrich our appreciation of the subtleties of structure that underlie molecular recognition in biological systems. One of the central problems in developing effective models is the quality and quantity of experimental data on the structure and thermodynamics of protein-ligand complexes. In this article we discuss some of the issues and some of the experimental programmes of research we have initiated to provide such data. We summarise the characteristics necessary for a model system and the experimental techniques available. This includes a discussion of calorimetry, inhibition assays and crystallographic results on series of complexes in our laboratory, including penicillin acylase, thrombin, sialidase and inparticular the oligopeptide binding protein, OppA. Aswell as discussing the lessons we have learnt about the characteristics of an ideal model system, we also present some preliminary analyses of what our combined structural and thermodynamic data have told us.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmaceutical research 11 (1994), S. 1747-1754 
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: in vitro skin penetration ; human cadaver skin ; statistics ; data transformations ; data analysis ; sensitivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The institution of a readily-implemented sample screening and data handling procedure for in vitro skin penetration studies yields substantial improvements in sensitivity for distinguishing between formulations, treatments, penetrants, etc. The procedure involves four steps: 1) prescreen the tissue samples to determine their intrinsic permeability; 2) apply treatments using a randomized complete block (RGB) design, with blocking by tissue permeability; 3) apply a variance-stabilizing transformation to the penetration data, followed by outlier testing; and 4) analyze the transformed data according to an RGB analysis of variance, using tissue permeability as the blocking variable. For penetration studies in which high sample variability is a concern, the above procedure commonly yields a sensitivity advantage of several-fold versus alternative methods of comparison.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Public choice 36 (1981), S. 313-322 
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Niskanen's theory of government budgeting, involving powerful agencies interested in maximizing their budgets through bargaining with a weak, poorly informed governmental ‘Sponsor’, has received wide recognition. This paper presents the first direct empirical tests of Niskanen's ideas. One implication of Niskanen's model of budgeting is that the demand for public services will appear to be elastic. Niskanen's model also implies restrictions on the elasticity of the derived demand for labor in the public sector. Neither set of predictions is supported by existing empirical research on government activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Breast cancer research and treatment 51 (1998), S. 17-28 
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast neoplasms ; diet ; disease-free survival ; follow-up studies ; survival analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We studied the effect of diet and body weight on recurrence and death in 472 women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in 1982–1984. From Cox proportional hazards regression models we found that the strongest effects were observed in premenopausal women. For example, after accounting for disease stage and age, reported baseline consumption (times/day) of butter, margarine, and lard (risk ratio (RR)=1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.17–2.39) and beer (drinks/day) (RR=1.58; 95% CI=1.15–2.17) increased the risk of recurrence. There also appeared to be an increased risk associated with consumption of red meat, liver, and bacon, corresponding to about a doubling of risk for each time per day that foods in this category were consumed (RR=1.93; 95% CI=0.89–4.15). Relative body weight increased risk at the rate of 9% (RR=1.09; 95% CI=1.02–1.17) for each kg/m2 (equivalent to about 5.8 pounds for a woman 5′4″ tall). For death, the results were similar, but relative weight was more strongly associated, increasing risk by 12% per kg/m2 (RR=1.12; 95% CI=1.03–1.22).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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