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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Extremophiles 1 (1997), S. 199-206 
    ISSN: 1433-4909
    Keywords: Key words Alkaliphile ; Bacteriophage ; Bacillus clarkii ; Temperate ; Clear plaque mutant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The isolation and characterization of a novel bacteriophage active against the obligately alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus clarkii is described. The bacteriophage, designated BCJA1, is a member of the Siphoviridae family with a B1 morphology. It possesses an isometric head, which measures 65 nm between opposite apices, and a noncontractile tail of 195 nm length. It had a buoyant density of 1.518 g/ml and an estimated particle mass of 37 × 107 daltons. BCJA1 was stable over the pH range of 6–11. A one-step growth experiment conducted at pH 10 demonstrated a latent period of about 40 min and a burst size of approximately 40. The purified bacteriophage appeared to consist of 10 proteins with the major head and tail proteins likely to be of molecular weight 36 500 and 28 000, respectively. The genome size was estimated to be between 32.1 and 34.8 kb. The percent G + C content of purified bacteriophage DNA was 45.6. The wildtype bacteriophage is temperate but a clear plaque mutant was isolated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 435 (2005), S. 702-707 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) are multi-protein macromolecular ‘machines’ that have a central function in the virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens by directly mediating the secretion and translocation of bacterial proteins (termed effectors) into the cytoplasm of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 57 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an intestinal attaching and effacing pathogen that utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) for the delivery of effectors into host cells. The chaperone CesT has been shown to bind and stabilize the type III translocated effectors Tir and Map in the bacterial cytoplasm prior to their delivery into host cells. In this study we demonstrate  a  role  for  CesT  in  effector  recruitment  to the membrane embedded T3SS. CesT-mediated effector recruitment was dependent on the presence of the T3SS membrane-associated ATPase EscN. EPEC ΔcesT carrying a C-terminal CesT variant, CesT(E142G), exhibited normal cytoplasmic Tir stability function, but was less efficient in secreting Tir, further implicating CesT in type III secretion. In vivo co-immunoprecipitation studies using CesT-FLAG containing EPEC lysates demonstrated that CesT interacts with Tir and EscN, consistent with the notion of CesT recruiting Tir to the T3SS. CesT was also shown to be required for the efficient secretion of several type III effectors encoded within and outside the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) in addition to Tir and Map. Furthermore, a CesT affinity column was shown to specifically retain multiple effector proteins from EPEC culture supernatants. These findings indicate that CesT is centrally involved in recruiting multiple type III effectors to the T3SS via EscN for efficient secretion, and functionally redefine the role of CesT in multiple type III effector interactions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 51 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 uses a specialized protein translocation apparatus, the type III secretion system (TTSS), to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells. These effectors interfere with host cytoskeletal pathways and signalling cascades to facilitate bacterial survival and replication and promote disease. The genes encoding the TTSS and all known type III secreted effectors in EHEC are localized in a single pathogenicity island on the bacterial chromosome known as the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of proteins secreted by the LEE-encoded TTSS of EHEC. In addition to known LEE-encoded type III secreted proteins, such as EspA, EspB and Tir, a novel protein, NleA (non-LEE-encoded effector A), was identified. NleA is encoded in a prophage-associated pathogenicity island within the EHEC genome, distinct from the LEE. The LEE-encoded TTSS directs translocation of NleA into host cells, where it localizes to the Golgi apparatus. In a panel of strains examined by Southern blot and database analyses, nleA was found to be present in all other LEE-containing pathogens examined, including enteropathogenic E. coli and Citrobacter rodentium, and was absent from non-pathogenic strains of E. coli and non-LEE-containing pathogens. NleA was determined to play a key role in virulence of C. rodentium in a mouse infection model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology reviews 25 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6976
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The archaeal flagellum is a unique motility apparatus distinct in composition and likely in assembly from the bacterial flagellum. Gene families comprised of multiple flagellin genes co-transcribed with a number of conserved, archaeal-specific accessory genes have been identified in several archaea. However, no homologues of any bacterial genes involved in flagella structure have yet been identified in any archaeon, including those archaea in which the complete genome sequence has been published. Archaeal flagellins possess a highly conserved hydrophobic N-terminal sequence that is similar to that of type IV pilins and clearly unlike that of bacterial flagellins. Also unlike bacterial flagellins but similar to type IV pilins, archaeal flagellins are initially synthesized with a short leader peptide that is cleaved by a membrane-located peptidase. With recent advances in genetic transfer systems in archaea, knockouts have been reported in several genes involved in flagellation in different archaea. In addition, techniques to isolate flagella with attached hook and anchoring structures have been developed. Analysis of these preparations is under way to identify minor structural components of archaeal flagella. This and the continued isolation and characterization of flagella mutants should lead to significant advances in our knowledge of the composition and assembly of archaeal flagella.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 46 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The fla gene locus of Methanococcus voltae encodes the major structural components of the flagellum as well as other flagellar-related proteins. The flaHIJ genes have been found in all flagellated archaea, suggesting a central role in flagella biogenesis. FlaI shares similarity with the type II and type IV secretion NTPases (such as PilB, VirB11 and TadA), and FlaJ exhibits similarity to putative bacterial integral membrane proteins involved in type IV pilus biogenesis such as TadB. In this study, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blotting data revealed that flaHIJ are co-transcribed with the upstream structural flagellin genes, thus demonstrating the expression of the entire fla gene cluster in vivo. Non-polar mutants in flaI and flaJ of M. voltae were isolated using insertional inactivation via a novel mutagenic vector. These mutants were non-motile and non-flagellated by microscopy, demonstrating the involvement of FlaI and FlaJ in flagella biogenesis. Interestingly, all the mutants maintained the ability to produce and localize flagellins to the cytoplasmic membrane. Amino-terminal sequencing of flagellins produced by the flaJ mutant strain revealed that the flagellins did not have their cognate leader peptides, thus indicating that preflagellin processing had occurred in vivo. This result was confirmed using an in vitro processing assay. The fla− phenotype and protein secretion characteristics of the flaI and flaJ mutants therefore implicate these respective genes in archaeal flagellin secretion and assembly. These findings further support a model describing the archaeal flagellum as a novel prokaryotic motility structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 34 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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