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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 96 (1998), S. 487-494 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Acridine orange ; Alzheimer’s disease ; Neurofibrillary tangles ; Pick’s disease ; Senile plaques
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cytoplasmic RNA species have been identified recently within neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques of Alzheimer’s disease brain. To determine whether RNA sequestration is a common feature of other lesions found in progressive neurodegenerative disorders, acridine orange histofluorescence was employed, alone or in combination with immunohistochemistry and thioflavine-S staining to identify RNA species in paraffin-embedded brain tissue sections. Postmortem samples came from 39 subjects with the following diagnoses: Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam, corticobasal degeneration, diffuse Lewy body disease, normal controls, multiple system atrophy, Parkinson’s disease, Pick’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Shy-Drager syndrome. RNAs were detected in neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic senile plaques as well as in Pick bodies. However, Lewy bodies, Hirano bodies, and cytoplasmic glial inclusions did not contain abundant cytoplasmic RNA species. These observations demonstrate the selective localization of RNA species to distinct pathological lesions of neurodegenerative disease brains.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 91 (1996), S. 475-481 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Amygdala ; Lewy bodies ; Neurofibrillary ; tangles ; Parkinson’s disease ; Dementia pathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Amygdalae of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, Down’s syndrome, diffuse Lewy body disease or a combination of these diseases were probed with antibodies to neurofilament proteins as well as with Lewy body (LB)- and paired helical filament-specific antibodies. The results indicate that the amygdala is severely affected by the accumulation of both neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and LBs in most cases of the diseases mentioned above, and that amygdala LBs have a similar epitope composition to that of LBs in the brain stem and cerebral cortex. While large numbers of both LBs and NFTs were seen in different neurons within the amygdala, these two lesions frequently occurred together in the same neurons of the amygdala. These findings are in contrast to other sites that accumulate LBs and NFTs, but rarely both lesions in the same neuron. Thus, amygdala neurons may be selectively vulnerable to developing both LBs and NFTs, and these inclusions may play a role in the massive degeneration of these neurons in AD and LB disorders of the elderly.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 93 (1997), S. 619-627 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Cytoskeleton ; Development ; Dysplasia ; Nestin ; Internexin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cortical dysplasias (CD) are characterized histologically by disorganized cortical lamination and abnormally shaped neurons. We hypothesized that neurons within CD have failed to differentiate fully and may express proteins such as cytoskeletal elements characteristic of immature cells. Disrupted expression of certain cytoskeletal proteins, which have been implicated in neuronal polarity, process outgrowth, and migration, could result in disorganized cortical lamination. Thus, we probed two CD subtypes, focal CD (FCD) and hemimegalencephaly (HME), with antibodies specific for cytoskeletal proteins that are developmentally regulated in neural progenitor cells and neurons to define more fully the developmental phenotype of neurons within CD. Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) and the intermediate filament (IF) protein nestin are enriched in neural progenitors, whereas MAP2B, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of medium (NFM) and high (NFH) molecular weight neurofilament (NF) proteins, as well as the light NF subunit (NFL) and the IF protein α internexin are expressed in developing and mature neurons. Immunolabeling for internexin and MAP1B was more abundant in the most abnormally shaped neurons that populated dysplastic regions than in adjacent regions exhibiting milder cytoarchitectural abnormalities or control cortex. Nestin immunoreactivity was noted in large dysplastic and heterotopic neurons within the deeper cortical layers of CD specimens but not in normal cortex. In contrast, neurons in CD specimens also expressed cytoskeletal markers characteristic of differentiated neurons such as NF subunits and MAP2B. These findings suggest that the cytoarchitectural abnormalities in CD may reflect pathophysiological changes in the developing brain that disrupt expression of several key components of the neuronal cytoskeleton and may contribute to impaired migration of cortical neurons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 91 (1996), S. 269-277 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Vimentin ; Neurofibrillary tangle ; Subiculum ; Orbitofrontal cortex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Clinical and neuropsychological studies of chronically institutionalized patients with schizophrenia indicate that severe cognitive impairment and functional disability in late life are very prevalent. The biological substrates for this dementia remain unknown. While subtle cytoarchitectural and morphometric abnormalities have been described in patients with schizophrenia and interpreted as reflecting aberrant neurodevelopment, post-maturational injury or neurodegeneration associated with gliosis remain as plausible explanations of at least some of the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. We monitored astrocytosis and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation in 21 elderly patients with schizophrenia (14 with concurrent dementia, 7 without), and in 12 normal and 5 Alzheimer's disease (AD) control cases. Astrocytes in ventromedial temporal, frontal, and calcarine cortices were immunohistochemically identified with monoclonal antibodies directed at glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, and NFTs were labeled with an anti-tau antibody specific for paired helical filaments. There were no increases in GFAP- or vimentin-immunoreactive astrocyte counts, GFAP optical density, or NFT counts for the schizophrenic group as a whole compared to the non-neuropsychiatric group, while both groups differed from AD. When patients with schizophrenia were divided into demented and non-demented subtypes, those with dementia demonstrated significantly greater numbers of GFAP-positive astrocytes than those without dementia. These data may reflect an up-regulation of GFAP in normal astrocytes or the presence of reactive astrocytosis in a subgroup of schizophrenics. In the absence of any diagnostic neuropathological findings in this subgroup, the implications of these observations for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remain to be determined.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 86 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Proteinaceous inclusions with amyloidogenic properties are a common link between many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Histological and in vitro studies of amyloid fibrils have advanced the understanding of protein aggregation, and provided important insights into pathogenic mechanisms of these neurodegenerative brain amyloidoses. The classical amyloid dyes Congo Red (CR) and thioflavin T and S, have been used extensively to detect amyloid inclusions in situ. These dyes have also been utilized to monitor the maturation of amyloid fibrils assembled from monomer subunits in vitro. Recently, the compound (trans,trans)-1-bromo-2,5-bis-(3- hydroxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy)styrylbenzene (BSB), derived from the structure of CR, was shown to bind to a wide range of amyloid inclusions in situ. More importantly it was also used to label brain amyloids in live animals. Herein, we show that an analogue of BSB, (trans,trans)-1-bromo-2,5-bis-(4-hydroxy)styrylbenzene (K114), recognizes amyloid lesions, and has distinctive properties which allowed the quantitative monitoring of the formation of amyloid fibrils assembled from the amyloid-β peptide, α-synuclein, and tau.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of cutaneous pathology 25 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0560
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The present study was undertaken to characterize further the structure and function of cutaneous nerves which we have previously shown to associate with skin immune cells (Hosoi et al., Nature 1993: 363:159). Ultrastructurally, axons were prominent within the superficial dermis atid epidermis in neonatal murine skin, but they were inconspicuous in adult murine and primate skin. Immunohistochemical and immunoultrastuctural evaluation of normal adult human and simian skin for neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), however, defined a plexus of axons surrounding superficial dermal mast cells and extending as delicate, vertical branches into the overlying epidermal layer. Antibodies to neuropeptides substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and to nerve cell-specific clathrin (LCb subunit) also reacted with this neural plexus. Double labeling disclosed intimate associations of N-CAM-positive axons with dermal chymase-positive mast cells as well as with epidermal CD la-positive Langerhans' cells by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Functionally, capsaicin applied to forearm skin revealed by 6 h discharge of mast cell chymase and induction of E-selectin in adjacent microvascular endothelium, events consistent with release of substance P from axons and subsequent stimulation of cytokine-mediated mast cell-endothelial interaction. Identical application of capsaicin to human skin xenografted to immunodeficient mice, and thus experimentally lacking in unmyelinated axons, failed to show similar findings. These results provide additional support to the concept that an elaborate network of cutaneous axons may play a functional role in regulation of skin inflammation and immunity.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 388 (1997), S. 839-840 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Lewy bodies, a defining pathological characteristic of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), constitute the second most common nerve cell pathology, after the neurofibrillary lesions of Alzheimer's disease. Their formation may cause neurodegeneration, but their biochemical ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Bioconjugate chemistry 5 (1994), S. 119-125 
    ISSN: 1520-4812
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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