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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 85 (1990), S. 491-494 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Stable dicentric chromosomes behave as monocentrics because one of the centromeres is inactive. The cause of centromere inactivation is unknown; changes in centromere chromatin conformation and loss of centromeric DNA elements have been proposed as possible mechanisms. We studied the phenomenon of inactivation in two Y centromeres, having as a control genetically identical active Y centromeres. The two cases have the following karyotypes: 45,X/46,X,i(Y)(q12) and 46,XY/ 47,XY,+t(X;Y)(p22.3;p11.3). The analysis of the behaviour of the active and inactive Y chromosome centromeres after Da-Dapi staining, CREST immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization with centromeric probes leads us to conclude that, in the case of the isochromosome, a true deletion of centromeric chromatin is responsible for its stability, whereas in the second case, stability of the dicentric (X;Y) is the result of centromere chromatin modification.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization and Southern blotting 14 partial Xq monosomies, 11 due to terminal deletions and 3 secondary to X/autosome translocations. Three cases were mosaics with a XO cell line. In view of the possible role played by telomeres in chromosome segregation, we hypothesize a relationship between the loss of telomeric sequences in terminal deletions and the presence of 45,X cells. A correlation between phenotype and extent of deletion revealed that there is no correspondence between the size of the deletion and impairment of gonadal function. Turner stigmata are absent in patients without an XO cell line, when the breakpoint is distal to Xg24. A low birthweight is present whenever the breakpoint is at q22 or more proximal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 82 (1989), S. 17-19 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Normal levels of adenylate kinase (AK-1) and of α1-acid glycoprotein (ORM1) were found in a girl with a deletion 9q32-qter secondary to a maternal translocation (4q35; 9q32), thus excluding these loci from the deleted region. These results, and comparison with other informative data, map the locus for AK-1 to 9q32 and that for ORM1 to region 9q31-q32. The girl has several signs of the Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia), which is listed in the McKusick catalog (no. 30560) as an X-linked dominant condition. Our finding indicates that the locus for Golz syndrome is autosomal and in region 9q32-qter or that there are two such conditions, one autosomal and one X-linked.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 97 (1996), S. 382-386 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A ring chromosome 3 and a 47th chromosome formed by the portions of 3p and 3q distal to the r(3) breakpoints were found in a girl with mental retardation and minor facial anomalies. The supernumerary chromosome 3, rea(3), had a primary constriction inside its 3p portion (3p23) and was consistently stable both in lymphocytes and fibroblasts. In situ hybridization with alphoid probes revealed that the r(3) maintained its wild-type centromere, whereas the rea(3) showed no alphoid-related signals. This case and a similar one recently reported demonstrate that acentric fragments can acquire a new centromere and become stable, and that supernumerary marker chromosomes can also originate by the junction of the acentric portions distal to the centric region forming a ring. The possibility of such a chromosome segregating will depend on its ability to (re)activate a new centromere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization and Southern blotting 14 partial Xq monosomies, 11 due to terminal deletions and 3 secondary to X/ autosome translocations. Three cases were mosaics with a XO cell line. In view of the possible role played by telomeres in chromosome segregation, we hypothesize a relationship between the loss of telomeric sequences in terminal deletions and the presence of 45,X cells. A correlation between phenotype and extent of deletion revealed that there is no correspondence between the size of the deletion and impairment of gonadal function. Turner stigmata are absent in patients without an XO cell line, when the breakpoint is distal to Xq24. A low birthweight is present whenever the breakpoint is at q22 or more proximal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 94 (1994), S. 171-176 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report two unrelated women with gonadal dysgenesis, and a (6;15)(p21.3;q15) and a (8;9)(p11.2;q12) balanced translocation, respectively. The patients were of normal stature and showed no phenotypic abnormality or malformation other than ovarian failure. We are not aware of other reports of balanced autosomal translocations associated with gonadal dysgenesis in women. The occurrence of chromosome anomaly and sterility in the two females may be coincidental. However, studies on mouse gametic progression indicate that balanced autosomal translocations can cause oocyte degeneration and reduction of reproductive lifespan. On the basis of these observations, we cannot exclude that the ovarian failure in our patients is the result of oocyte degeneration because of as yet unidentified consequences of the balanced translocations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 97 (1996), S. 382-386 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A ring chromosome 3 and a 47th chromosome formed by the portions of 3p and 3q distal to the r(3) breakpoints were found in a girl with mental retardation and minor facial anomalies. The supernumerary chromosome 3, rea(3), had a primary constriction inside its 3p portion (3p23) and was consistently stable both in lymphocytes and fibroblasts. In situ hybridization with alphoid probes revealed that the r(3) maintained its wild-type centromere, whereas the rea(3) showed no alphoid-related signals. This case and a similar one recently reported demonstrate that acentric fragments can acquire a new centromere and become stable, and that supernumerary marker chromosomes can also originate by the junction of the acentric portions distal to the centric region forming a ring. The possibility of such a chromosome segregating will depend on its ability to (re)activate a new centromere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 409 (2001), S. 832-833 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We have searched the human genome for genes encoding new proteins that may be involved in three nuclear gene expression processes: transcription, pre-messenger RNA splicing and polyadenylation. A plethora of potential new factors are implicated by sequence in nuclear gene expression, revealing a ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 439 (2006), S. 973-977 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder that is not due to a classical mutation within a protein-coding gene. Instead, almost all FSHD patients carry deletions of an integral number of tandem 3.3-kilobase repeat units, termed D4Z4, located ...
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