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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature structural & molecular biology 11 (2004), S. 697-705 
    ISSN: 1545-9985
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins are bacterial protein toxins that bind to cholesterol-containing membranes, form oligomeric complexes and insert into the bilayer to create large aqueous pores. Membrane-dependent structural rearrangements required to initiate the oligomerization of perfringolysin O ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature structural & molecular biology 11 (2004), S. 1173-1178 
    ISSN: 1545-9985
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Cholesterol is believed to serve as the common receptor for the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs). One member of this toxin family, Streptococcus intermedius intermedilysin (ILY), exhibits a narrow spectrum of cellular specificity that is seemingly inconsistent with this premise. We show here ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature structural biology 9 (2002), S. 823-827 
    ISSN: 1072-8368
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Perfringolysin O (PFO), a cytolytic toxin secreted by pathogenic Clostridium perfringens, forms large pores in cholesterol-containing membranes. Domain 4 (D4) of the protein interacts first with the membrane and is responsible for cholesterol recognition. By using several independent fluorescence ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 138 (1984), S. 113-118 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Carbonic anhydrase ; Rhodospirillum rubrum ; Carbonic anhydrase purification ; Carbonic anhydrase properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) of Rhodospirillum rubrum has been purified to apparent homogeneity and some of its properties have been determined. The enzyme was cytoplasmic and was found only in photosynthetically grown cells. It had a molecular weight of about 28,000, and was apparently composed of two equal subunits. The amino acid composition was similar to that of other reported carbonic anhydrases except that the R. rubrum enzyme contained no arginine. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 6.2 and the pH optimum was 7.5. It required Zn(II) for stability and enzymatic activity. The K m(CO2) was 80 mM. Typical carbonic anhydrase inhibition patterns were found with the R. rubrum enzyme. Strong acetazolamide and sulfanilamide inhibition confirmed the importance of Zn(II) for enzymatic activity as did the anionic inhibitors iodide, and azide. Other inhibitors indicated that histidine, sulfhydryl, lysine and serine residues were important for enzymatic activity.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 31 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Aerolysin is a bilobal channel-forming toxin secreted by Aeromonas hydrophila. The alpha toxin produced by Clostridium septicum is homologous to the large lobe of aerolysin. However, it does not contain a region corresponding to the small lobe of the Aeromonas toxin, leading us to ask what the function of the small lobe is. We fused the small lobe of aerolysin to alpha toxin, producing a hybrid protein that should structurally resemble aerolysin. Unlike aerolysin, the hybrid was not secreted when expressed in Aeromonas salmonicida. The purified hybrid was activated by proteolytic processing in the same way as both parent proteins and, after activation, it formed oligomers that corresponded to the aerolysin heptamer. Like aerolysin, the hybrid was far more active than alpha toxin against human erythrocytes and mouse T lymphocytes. Both aerolysin and the hybrid bound to human glycophorin, and both were inhibited by preincubation with this erythrocyte glycoprotein, whereas alpha toxin was unaffected. We conclude that aerolysin contains two receptor binding sites, one for glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins that is located in the large lobe and is also found in alpha toxin, and a second site, located in the small lobe, that binds a surface carbohydrate determinant.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 25 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Clostridium septicum alpha toxin is activated by a proteolytic cleavage at Arg-398 in its carboxy terminus, which yields a 41.3-kDa cytolytically active toxin and a 5.1-kDa propeptide. Studies were performed to determine when the propeptide dissociated from the toxin after proteolytic activation of the protoxin (ATpro) and to demonstrate the chaperone activity of the propeptide. The propeptide was found to remain associated with the toxin after activation with trypsin (ATact) when analysed by gel filtration or affinity chromatography of a polyhistidine-tagged derivative that contained the polyhistidine tag on the propeptide. The affinity of the propeptide for the toxin was decreased significantly when a mutation was introduced in which Val-400 was converted to a cysteine residue. This mutation destabilized the interaction of the propeptide with the toxin and the propeptide was found to dissociate from the toxin under the same gel-filtration conditions used for the wild-type toxin. The separation of the propeptide in the V400C mutant did not affect the cytolytic activity of the toxin and therefore the propeptide was not necessary for cytolytic activity. These data suggested that the propeptide did not dissociate from the main body of the toxin after proteolysis. Further analysis demonstrated that purified propeptide was a potent inhibitor of alpha toxin activity, which inhibited the oligomerization of alpha toxin into a functional pore. These data suggest that the propeptide does not participate in the final oligomerized complex and that oligomerization appears to displace the propeptide from ATact. The importance of the propeptide to the solution stability of alpha toxin was also demonstrated. When ATpro was activated in solution with trypsin a significant level (approximately 50%) of inactive aggregate formed. This aggregate, which could be removed by centrifugation at 14 000 × g, was made up of both SDS-sensitive and -resistant aggregates, suggesting that a variety of inactive aggregates formed when the monomers interacted in solution. Significantly higher levels of haemolytic activity (approximately 16-fold) were observed when alpha toxin was proteolytically activated after membrane binding instead of in solution. These results support the role of the propeptide as an intramolecular chaperone that stabilizes the monomeric ATpro and shuttles it to the membrane where it is activated by protease, oligomerizes into a pre-pore complex and forms a pore. The data suggest that oligomerization of the toxin displaces the propeptide from the monomer form of alpha toxin and that the propeptide does not participate in, and is not necessary to, the final cytolytic complex.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 23 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Low-temperature inhibition of the cytolytic activity of alpha toxin has facilitated the identification of an important step in the cytolytic mechanism of this toxin. When alpha toxin-dependent haemolysis was measured on erythrocytes at various temperatures it was clear that at temperatures ≤15°C the haemolysis rate was significantly inhibited with little or no haemolysis occurring at 4°C. Alpha toxin appeared to bind to and oligomerize on erythrocyte membranes with similar kinetics at 4°C and 37°C. The slight differences in these two processes at 4°C and 37°C could not account for the loss of cytolytic activity at low temperature. At 4°C alpha toxin neither stimulated potassium release from erythrocytes nor formed pores in planar membranes. In contrast, at temperatures ≥25°C both processes proceeded rapidly. Pores that were opened in osmotically stabilized erythrocytes could not be closed by low temperature. Therefore, low temperature appeared to prevent the oligomerized complex from forming a pore in the membrane. These data support the hypothesis that alpha toxin oligomerizes into a membrane-bound, pre-pore complex prior to formation of a pore in a lipid bilayer.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Clostridium perfringens infections are characterized by the lack of an inflammatory response at the site of infection and rapidly progressive margins of tissue necrosis. Studies presented here investigated the role of theta toxin from C. perfringens in the pathophysiology of these events. Mice passively immunized with neutralizing monoclonal antibody against theta toxin and challenged with an LD100 of log phase C. perfringens had significantly less mortality than untreated controls. Intramuscular injection of killed, washed C. perfringens in mice induced a massive time-dependent influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) into tissue; injection of either viable, washed C. perfringens or killed organisms plus theta toxin dramatically attenuated PMNL influx although PMNL accumulated in adjacent vessels. The anti-inflammatory effects could not be attributed to an absence of chemoattractants since C. perfringens proteins had chemotactic factor activity, and killed bacilli generated serum-derived chemotactic factors. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the dramatic leukocidal effects of high doses of theta toxin on PMNL. In contrast, sublethal concentrations of theta toxin primed PMNL chemiluminescence, disrupted PMNL cytoskeletal actin polymerization/disassembly, and stimulated functional upregulation of CD11b/CD18 adherence glycoprotein. In summary, these results demonstrate that theta toxin is an important virulence factor in C. perfringens infection. In a concentration-dependent fashion, theta toxin contributes to the pathogenesis of clostridial gangrene by direct destruction of host inflammatory cells and tissues, and by promoting dysregulated PMNL/endothelial cell adhesive interactions.
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