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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-6881
    Keywords: (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase ; sarcoplasmic reticulum ; membrane fluidity ; enzyme kinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum has been reconstituted with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and the activating effect of ATP and Ca2+ on this enzyme has been studied at different temperatures. It has been found that two kinetic forms of the enzyme are interconverted at about 31°C, and this is possibly related to a phase change in the phospholipid which is more directly associated with the protein. Above 31°C the enzyme is less dependent on ATP activation at high ATP concentrations but shows positive cooperativity for Ca2+ activation. On the other hand, below 31°C, the reconstituted enzyme is more dependent on ATP for activation at high ATP concentrations than the purified ATPase and does not show cooperativity for Ca2+ activation.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 14 (1989), S. 197-204 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase ; sarcotubular system ; proteolytic stimulation ; solubilization ; molecular forms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Incubation of membranes derived from sarcotubular system of rabbit skeletal muscle with increasing concentrations of Triton X-100 produced both stimulation of the AChE activity and solubilization of this enzyme. Mild proteolytic treatment of microsomal membranes produced a several fold activation of the still membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Attempts were made to solubilize AChE from microsomal membranes by proteolytic treatment. About 30–40% of the total enzyme activity could be solubilized by means of trypsin or papain. Short trypsin treatment of the microsomal membranes produced first an activation of the membrane-bound enzyme followed by solubilization. Incubation of muscle microsomes for a short time with papain yielded a significant portion of soluble enzyme. Membrane-bound enzyme activation was measured after a prolonged incubation period. These results are compared with those of solubilization obtained by treatment of membranes with progressive concentrations of Triton X-100. The occurrence of molecular forms in protease-solubilized AChE was investigated by means of centrifugation analysis and slab gel electrophoresis. Centrifugation on sucrose gradients revealed two main components of 4.4S and 10–11S in either trypsin or papain-solubilized AChE. These components behaved as hydrophilic species whereas the Triton solubilized AChE showed an amphipatic character. Application of slab gel electrophoresis showed the occurrence of forms with molecular weights of 350,000; 175,000; 165,000; 85,000 and 76,000. The stimulation of membrane-bound AChE by detergents or proteases would indicate that most of the enzyme molecules or their active sites are sequestered into the lipid bilayer through lipid-protein or protein-protein interactions and these are broken by proteolytic digestion of the muscle microsomes.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 17 (1992), S. 717-722 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase ; molecular forms ; ethanol ; muscle microsomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The action of ethanol on the activity of membrane-bound and soluble acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle has been studied. Treatment of membranes with 2.5–12.5% v/v ethanol produced a slight stimulation of the AChE activity and inhibition at higher concentration. The enzyme remained associated with the membranes after these treatments. The enzyme solubilized with Triton X-100 was inhibited by ethanol in a time-independent manner. Isolated 16 S (A12), 10.5 S (G4) and 4.5 S (G1) forms of AChE were inhibited by ethanol to a similar extent. Samples were reversibly inhibited by ethanol, up to 12.5% v/v, and irreversibly at higher concentrations. Kinetic studies performed with isolated forms in the presence of 5–12.5% v/v ethanol showed that the solvent behaved as a competitive inhibitor of the asymmetric form but as a mixed inhibitor of the tetrameric and monomeric forms. The results show that the solvent interacts with active and/or regulatory sites of AChE from muscle microsomes.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 12 (1987), S. 597-605 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase ; sarcotubular system ; solubilization ; multiple molecular forms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Attempts were made to solubilize acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from microsomal membranes isolated from rabbit white muscle. The preparative procedure included a step in which the microsomes were incubated in a solution containing high salt concentration (0.6 M KCl). About 15% of the total enzyme activity could be solubilized with dilute buffer. Addition of EDTA (1 mM), EGTA (1 mM) or NaCl (0.5 and 1 M) to the extraction buffer did not improve the solubilization yield. Several non-ionic detergents and biliary salts were then used to bring the enzyme into solution. Triton X-100, C12E9 (dodecylnonaethylenglycol monoether) and biliary salt, above their critical micellar concentration, proved to be very effective as solubilizing agents. The occurrence of multiple molecular forms in detergent-soluble AChE was investigated by means of molecular sieving, centrifugation analysis, and slab gel electrophoresis. Experiments on gel filtration showed that, during the process, half of the enzyme was transformed into aggregates, the rest of the activity appearing as peaks with Stokes radii ranging from 3.7 to 7.9 nm. Both ionic strength and detergent nature modify the number and relative proportion of these peaks. Centrifugation analysis of Triton-saline-soluble AChE yielded molecular forms of 4.8S, 10–11S, and 13.5S, whereas deoxycholate extracts revealed species of 4.8S, 10S, and 15S, providing that gradients were prepared with 0.5 M NaCl. In the absence of salt, forms of 6.5–7.5S, 10S, and 15S were measured. The lightest species was always the predominant form. Slab gel electrophoresis showed several bands (68,000–445,000). The 4.8S component only yielded bands of 65,000–70,000. The results suggest that the monomeric form of AChE (4.8S), the most abundant species in muscle microsomes, has a Stokes radius of 3.3 nm and a molecular weight in the range of 70,000.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Half of congenital muscular dystrophy cases arise from laminin α2 (merosin) deficiency, and merosin-deficient mice (Lama2dy) exhibit a dystrophic phenotype. The abnormal development of thymus in Lama2dy mice, the occurrence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the gland and the impaired distribution of AChE molecules in skeletal muscle of the mouse mutant prompted us to compare the levels of AChE mRNAs and enzyme species in thymus of control and Lama2dy mice. AChE activity in normal thymus (mean ± SD 1.42 ± 0.28 µmol acetylthiocholine/h/mg protein, U/mg) was decreased by ∼50% in dystrophic thymus (0.77 ± 0.23 U/mg) (p = 0.007), whereas butyrylcholinesterase activity was little affected. RT–PCR assays revealed variable levels of R, H and T AChE mRNAs in thymus, bone marrow and spinal cord. Control thymus contained amphiphilic AChE dimers (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:00223042:JNC3433:JNC_3433_mu1" location="equation/JNC_3433_mu1.gif"/〉, 64%) and monomers (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:00223042:JNC3433:JNC_3433_mu2" location="equation/JNC_3433_mu2.gif"/〉, 19%), as well as hydrophilic tetramers (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:00223042:JNC3433:JNC_3433_mu3" location="equation/JNC_3433_mu3.gif"/〉, 9%) and monomers (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:00223042:JNC3433:JNC_3433_mu4" location="equation/JNC_3433_mu4.gif"/〉, 8%). The dimers consisted of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored H subunits. Western blot assays with anti-AChE antibodies suggested the occurrence of inactive AChE in mouse thymus. Despite the decrease in AChE activity in Lama2dy thymus, no differences between thymuses from control and dystrophic mice were observed in the distribution of AChE forms, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C sensitivity, binding to lectins and size of AChE subunits.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 73 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract : The proportions and the glycosylation of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) forms in vesicles rich in sarcoplasmic reticulum from normal (NMV) and dystrophic (DMV) muscle were analyzed, using merosin-deficient dystrophic mice. BuChE activity in DMV was two- to threefold that in NMV. Globular amphiphilic GA1, GA2, and GA4 and hydrophilic GH4 BuChE forms were identified in NMV and DMV. The amount of GA2 forms increased sevenfold in DMV, and the other forms increased about twofold. The higher BuChE level in DMV might reflect a maturational defect, with dystrophy preventing the down-regulation of BuChE with muscle development. About half of GA1, GA2, and GH4 BuChE forms in NMV or DMV bound to Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), a higher fraction to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and little to Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA). Most of the GA4 forms in NMV or DMV bound to LCA or WGA ; those from NMV failed to bind to RCA, whereas most of the variants in DMV bound to it, suggesting that the excess of tetramers in DMV is mainly RCA-reactive. The differential interaction of lectins with BuChE components from muscle microsomes, serum, and nerves confirmed that the microsomal BuChE was muscle-intrinsic. The results provide clues regarding the alterations that dystrophy produces in the biosynthesis of BuChE forms in muscle.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 69 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The distribution and glycosylation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) forms in vesicles derived from sarcoplasmic reticulum of normal muscle (NMV) were investigated and compared with those from dystrophic muscle vesicles (DMV). AChE activity was similar in NMV and DMV. Most of the AChE in NMV and half in DMV were released with Triton X-100. Asymmetric (A12) and globular hydrophilic and amphiphilic (GH4, GA4, GA2, and GA1) AChE species occurred in NMV and DMV, the lighter forms being predominant. The percentage of GH4 and GA4 decreased in DMV. A fraction of the AChE that could not be extracted with detergent was detached with collagenase. Most of the detergent-released A12 AChE from NMV and nearly half in DMV failed to bind to Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA-I). Conversely, the collagenase-detached isoforms bound to RCA, revealing that asymmetric AChE associated with internal membranes or basal lamina differed in glycosylation. Moreover, nearly half of GA4 AChE in DMV and a few in NMV bound to RCA. Most of the RCA-unreactive GA4 forms in NMV come from sarcolemma. The results indicate that dystrophy induces minor changes in the distribution and glycosylation of AChE forms in internal membranes of muscle.
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