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  • 1
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2013-01-18
    Description: Switching cell fate, ncRNAs coming to play Cell Death and Disease 4, e464 (January 2013). doi:10.1038/cddis.2012.196 Authors: D Guan, W Zhang, W Zhang, G-H Liu & J C Izpisua Belmonte
    Keywords: ncRNAslncRNAsmicroRNAsreprogrammingtrans-differentiation
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-15
    Description: The edges of layered materials have unique properties that substantially differ from the body regions. In this work, we perform a systematic Raman study of the edges of various layered materials (MoS 2 , WS 2 , WSe 2 , PtS 2 , and black phosphorus). The Raman spectra of the edges feature newly observed forbidden Raman modes, which are originally undetectable from the body region. By selecting the edge type and the polarization directions of the incident and scattered light, all forbidden Raman modes are distinctly detected. Optical simulations show that the edges of layered materials drastically distort the electromagnetic fields of both the incident and scattered light, so that the light interacts with the edges in a distinct way, which differs from its interactions with the body regions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: RNAi technology is taking strong position among the key therapeutic modalities, with dozens of siRNA-based programs entering and successfully progressing through clinical stages of drug development. To further explore potentials of RNAi technology as therapeutics, we engineered and tested VEGFR2 siRNA molecules specifically targeted to tumors through covalently conjugated cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp- d -Phe-Lys[PEG-MAL]) (cRGD) peptide, known to bind αvβ3 integrin receptors. cRGD-siRNAs were demonstrated to specifically enter and silence targeted genes in cultured αvβ3 positive human cells (HUVEC). Microinjection of zebrafish blastocysts with VEGFR2 cRGD-siRNA resulted in specific inhibition of blood vessel growth. In tumor-bearing mice, intravenously injected cRGD-siRNA molecules generated no innate immune response and bio-distributed to tumor tissues. Continuous systemic delivery of two different VEGFR2 cRGD-siRNAs resulted in down-regulation of corresponding mRNA (55 and 45%) and protein (65 and 45%) in tumors, as well as in overall reduction of tumor volume (90 and 70%). These findings demonstrate strong potential of cRGD-siRNA molecules as anti-tumor therapy.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2017-10-08
    Description: Objectives Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused a substantial burden in China, especially in Guangdong Province. Based on the enhanced surveillance system, we aimed to explore whether the addition of temperate and search engine query data improves the risk prediction of HFMD. Design Ecological study. Setting and participants Information on the confirmed cases of HFMD, climate parameters and search engine query logs was collected. A total of 1.36 million HFMD cases were identified from the surveillance system during 2011–2014. Analyses were conducted at aggregate level and no confidential information was involved. Outcome measures A seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model with external variables (ARIMAX) was used to predict the HFMD incidence from 2011 to 2014, taking into account temperature and search engine query data (Baidu Index, BDI). Statistics of goodness-of-fit and precision of prediction were used to compare models (1) based on surveillance data only, and with the addition of (2) temperature, (3) BDI, and (4) both temperature and BDI. Results A high correlation between HFMD incidence and BDI ( r =0.794, p〈0.001) or temperature ( r =0.657, p〈0.001) was observed using both time series plot and correlation matrix. A linear effect of BDI (without lag) and non-linear effect of temperature (1 week lag) on HFMD incidence were found in a distributed lag non-linear model. Compared with the model based on surveillance data only, the ARIMAX model including BDI reached the best goodness-of-fit with an Akaike information criterion (AIC) value of –345.332, whereas the model including both BDI and temperature had the most accurate prediction in terms of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 101.745%. Conclusions An ARIMAX model incorporating search engine query data significantly improved the prediction of HFMD. Further studies are warranted to examine whether including search engine query data also improves the prediction of other infectious diseases in other settings.
    Keywords: Open access, Infectious diseases
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 5
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2014-06-03
    Description: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem worldwide. The role played by microRNAs (miRNAs) in HBV replication and pathogenesis is being increasingly recognized. In this study, we found that miR-15b, an important miRNA during HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma development, directly binds hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) mRNA, a negative regulator of HBV Enhancer I, to attenuate HNF1α expression, resulting in transactivation of HBV Enhancer I, in turn causing the enhancement of HBV replication and expression of HBV antigens, including HBx protein, finally leading to the down-regulated expression of miR-15b in both cell lines and mice in a long cascade of events. Our research showed that miR-15b promotes HBV replication by augmenting HBV Enhancer I activity via direct targeting HNF1α, while HBV replication and antigens expression, particularly the HBx protein, then repress the expression of miR-15b. The reciprocal regulation between miR-15b and HBV controls the level of HBV replication and might play a role in persistent HBV infection. This work adds to the body of knowledge concerning the complex interactions between HBV and host miRNAs.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2014-09-28
    Description: Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae . To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT 2, HXT7 ) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD 10, ADH 7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-29
    Description: Dual induction of apoptotic and autophagic cell death by targeting survivin in head neck squamous cell carcinoma Cell Death and Disease 6, e1771 (May 2015). doi:10.1038/cddis.2015.139 Authors: L Zhang, W Zhang, Y-F Wang, B Liu, W-F Zhang, Y-F Zhao, A B Kulkarni & Z-J Sun
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2018-04-14
    Description: Objective To completely and quantifiably determine the effect of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on pregnancy outcomes in a Chinese cohort. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Data were collected at a tertiary medical centre located in Shanghai, China, from September 2011 to May 2017. Participants We assigned 338 pregnant women with SLE to the study cohort and 1014 randomly selected pregnant women without SLE (three for every woman with SLE) to a comparison cohort. The relevant medical records of all pregnant women were retrospectively reviewed. Cases of multiple pregnancy and cases in which an artificial abortion was performed for personal reasons were excluded. Primary and secondary outcome measures Maternal and fetal outcomes were primary outcomes, and management of antenatal care was the secondary outcome. Results The risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.75 to 4.09), pre-eclampsia (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.95 to 5.03) and premature rupture of membranes (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.46 to 4.40) were significantly different between women with and without SLE. Gestational diabetes was negatively associated with SLE in pregnant women (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.85). Pregnant women with SLE displayed significantly higher rates of fetal loss (OR 10.23, 95% CI 5.08 to 20.59), including spontaneous abortion (OR 4.42, 95% CI 1.52 to 12.80), therapeutic abortion (OR 16.57, 95% CI 5.80 to 47.35) and stillbirth (OR 13.25, 95% CI 1.49 to 118.11), and a higher risk of preterm birth (OR 3.15, 95% CI 2.21 to 4.50), intrauterine growth restriction (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.35 to 3.58), a child who was small for the gestational age (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.13), a caesarean section (OR 4.73, 95% CI 3.30 to 6.80) or a neonatal intensive care unit admission (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.21 to 5.48) than women in the non-SLE population after adjusting for confounding factors. Conclusions In this study, SLE significantly increased the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, a preconception assessment and close antenatal monitoring by both rheumatologists and obstetricians should be performed in pregnant women with SLE.
    Keywords: Open access
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 9
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    Genetics Society of America (GSA)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ) is characterized by its diversity and seasonal plasticity in sexual type. A long day length condition significantly decreased the cucumber female flower ratio by 17.7–52.9%, and the effect of photoperiod treatment is more significant under low temperature than under high temperature. Transcriptome analysis indicates that the photoperiod treatment preferentially significantly influenced flower development processes, particularly MADS-box genes in shoot apices. The long-day treatment resulted in predominantly transposable element (TE)- and gene-associated CHH-types of DNA methylation changes. Nevertheless, there was significant enrichment of CG- and CHG-types of DNA methylation changes nearing transcription start sites (TSSs)/transcription end sites (TESs) and gene bodies, respectively. Predominantly negative association between differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed which implied epiregulation of DEGs. Two MADS-box genes that were significantly downregulated by long photoperiod showed significant hypermethylation in promoter regions that is essentially TE-rich. This study indicates MADS-box genes which are partially regulated by promoter methylation state may mediate photoperiod-dependent regulation of cucumber sex expression.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2014-09-30
    Description: The generalized regularized long wave (GRLW) equation is an important nonlinear equation for describing a large number of physical phenomena, for examples, the shallow water waves and plasma waves. In this study, numerical approximation of the GRLW using the element-free improved moving least-squares Ritz (IMLS-Ritz) method is performed. In the solution procedure, the IMLS approximation is employed to reduce the number of unknown coefficients in the trial functions. The Ritz minimization procedure is then used to derive the final algebraic equation system through discretizing the constructed energy formulation of the nonlinear GRLW equation. Time difference technique and Newton-Raphson method are adopted to solve the nonlinear equation system. Numerical experiments are conducted on the final form of the governing equation system to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the element-free IMLS-Ritz method by comparing the computed IMLS-Ritz results with the existing available analytical solutions.
    Print ISSN: 1024-123X
    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5147
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Published by Hindawi
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