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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    London : IntechOpen
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9781789858204 , 9781838800192
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cognitive therapy and research 9 (1985), S. 335-341 
    ISSN: 1573-2819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Abstract An investigation was carried out into the effect of imagery instructions on a simple motor skill accuracy task (putting a golf ball). Thirty college students were blocked on their putting ability and randomly assigned within blocks to one of three experimental conditions: (a) positive imagery, (b) negative imagery, and (c) control. Subjects in the two imagery conditions were given the identical instructions for imagining the backswing and putting stroke. In the positive imagery group, subjects imagined the ball going into the cup, while subjects using negative imagery visualized the ball narrowly missing the cup. Subjects in the control group putted without instructions. On each of 6 consecutive days a 10-putt trial was conducted for each subject. There was a significant main effect on performance improvement for the experimental manipulation. Post hoc analyses showed significant differences among all groups, with positive imagery producing the most improvement, the control condition producing less, and negative imagery resulting in performance deterioration. Results are discussed in relation to the existing literature, and future research directions are delineated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cognitive therapy and research 3 (1979), S. 239-244 
    ISSN: 1573-2819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Abstract Bandura's (1978) article “On paradigms and recycled ideologies” is criticized from several perspectives. In essence, Bandura argues that the dichotomy between laboratory treatments and clinical behavior therapy is not only false but also reflects grave ideological misconceptions. We analyze what we regard as several flaws in this argument. Bandura's imputation of an implicit medical model to critics of “analogue” research seems to be ill-founded and of questionable relevance. We underscore how Bandura inadvertently argues for the very thesis that he attempts to refute—namely, that clinic patients and phobic subjects do differ in fundamental ways. In our view, when estimating the clinical significance of his research, Bandura tends to extrapolate beyond his data. Our chief objection to Bandura's (1978) position is that it overlooks certain realities of clinical practice. By hypothesizing some essential differences between clinical fears and snake phobias, we hope to place laboratory research in its proper context and thus to facilitate productive dialogues between practitioners and experimenters.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Although meditation has been employed successfully as a treatment for various stress-related disorders, there is still little evidence clarifying just which aspects of meditation training are responsible for these therapeutic effects. This experiment sought to test the hypothesis that creating two opposite expectations about an initial meditation experience would result in differing physiological and phenomenological responses, even though the same technique was practiced by all subjects. The results of the experiment failed to support this hypothesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Keywords: relaxation ; biofeedback ; autogenic training ; meditation ; stress management ; cognitive therapy ; anxiety ; hypertension ; headache
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This article evaluates the hypothesis that various stress management techniques have specific effects. Studies comparing various techniques are reviewed, as well as previous literature reviews evaluating the effects of individual techniques. There is evidence that cognitively oriented methods have specific cognitive effects, that specific autonomic effects result from autonomically oriented methods, and that specific muscular effects are produced by muscularly oriented methods. Muscle relaxation and/or EMG biofeedback have greater muscular effects and smaller autonomic effects than finger temperature biofeedback and/or autogenic training. EMG biofeedback produces greater effects on particular muscular groups than progressive relaxation, and thermal biofeedback has greater finger temperature effects than autogenic training. Disorders with a predominant muscular component (e.g., tension headaches) are treated more effectively by muscularly oriented methods, while disorders in which autonomic dysfunction predominates (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches) are more effectively treated by techniques with a strong autonomic component. Anxiety and phobias tend to be most effectively treated by methods with both strong cognitive and behavioral components.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of nonverbal behavior 2 (1977), S. 45-61 
    ISSN: 1573-3653
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of systematically varied verbal and nonverbal components of teachers' evaluative behavior upon children's perceptions and attitudes were studied within an experimental classroom. Subjects were 126 sixth-grade students who were removed from their classrooms to participate in a vocabulary lesson. Within each experimental condition a teacher employed one of four evaluative styles: (a) verbally and nonverbally positive, (b) verbally positive and nonverbally negative, (c) verbally negative and nonverbally positive, or (d) verbally and nonverbally negative. The data analysis indicated that teachers' verbal behavior influenced student perception and attraction. Nonverbal behavior influenced student perception and attraction, but only when the teacher was female. The implications of these findings for the study of the adult-child interaction are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of nonverbal behavior 3 (1979), S. 219-227 
    ISSN: 1573-3653
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Abstract Studies of mass transportation crowding have universally shown that such crowding is arousing and often anxiety producing. Attempts to intervene to reduce arousal and anxiety have met with mixed results. In this study four therapeutically based interventions were used to reduce the arousal evoked by a laboratory analogue of mass transportation crowding. Subjects in the intervention conditions showed significantly fewer increases in pulse rate during crowding. Two of the intervention conditions showed significant decreases in skin conductance level when compared to subjects in an uninstructed crowded condition. An intervention which increased feelings of control over the environment resulted in a more positive view of the environment but did not decrease physiological arousal any more than interventions which did not increase perceived control.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
    Bioethics 16 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8519
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Philosophy
    Notes: Recent policy debates in the US over access to mental health care have raised several philosophically complex ethical and conceptual issues. The defeat of mental health parity legislation in the US Congress has brought new urgency and relevance to theoretical and empirical investigations into the nature of mental illness and its relation to other forms of sickness and disability. Manifold, nebulous, and often competing conceptions of mental illness make the creation of coherent public policy exceedingly difficult. Referencing a variety of approaches to ethical reflection on health care, and drawing from the empirical literature on therapeutic efficacy and economic efficiency, we argue that differential rationing, ‘disparity,’ is unjustifiable.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1559-1816
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: The present study testcd the hypotheses that crowded subjects would evidence higher levels of arousal than uncrowded subjects and that the arousal of crowded subjects would not habituate with the passage of time. In a laboratory setting, subjects were exposed three tinies over a 3-week period to either crowding with physical contact or an uncrowded environment. A high degree of convergence in support of the experimental hypotheses was provided by behavioral, physiological, and self-report measures. Crowded subjects were more physiologically aroused; rated by confederates to be more tense, uncomfortable, and annoyed; and reported more negative affect than uncrowded subjects. No evidence for habituation of. response to crowding was found.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Clinical psychology 5 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1468-2850
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This article aims to demonstrate the importance and inevitability of nonscientific issues in psychotherapy and psychopathology by addressing four closely related topics: the presence of a priori factors such as tacit assumptions and narrative forms; the inescapable presence of values; the way in which psychotherapy and psychopathology are partly defined by, and in turn shape, current societal and cultural outlooks; and the status of clients as agents independent of their status as objects of scientifically based healing. The way in which these factors operate is illustrated in the case of a 45-year-old woman suffering from depression, physical illnesses, and family problems. Implications for quantitative and qualitative research are suggested.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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