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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 449 (2007), S. 835-842 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Genomes from all of the crucial bacterial pathogens of humans, plants and animals have now been sequenced, as have genomes from many of the important commensal, symbiotic and environmental microorganisms. Analysis of these sequences has revealed the forces that shape pathogen evolution and has ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature genetics 32 (2002), S. 335-336 
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Bacteria are the most populous organisms on the planet, probably followed by insects. Thus it is not surprising that bacteria and arthropods are often intimately linked, depending on each other for their coexistence. One striking example of this dependence is the bloodsucking tsetse fly (Dipteria: ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature genetics 38 (2006), S. 779-786 
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] We determined the complete genome sequence of Clostridium difficile strain 630, a virulent and multidrug-resistant strain. Our analysis indicates that a large proportion (11%) of the genome consists of mobile genetic elements, mainly in the form of conjugative transposons. These mobile elements are ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature genetics 37 (2005), S. 153-159 
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious human pathogens known. In the past, both the former Soviet Union and the US had programs to develop weapons containing the bacterium. We report the complete genome sequence of a highly virulent isolate of F. tularensis (1,892,819 bp). The ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology reviews 29 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6976
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Microbial cell surface glycans in the form of glycolipids and glycoproteins frequently play important roles in cell–cell interaction and host immune responses. Given the likely importance of these surface structures in the survival and pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni, a concerted effort has been made to characterise these determinants genetically and structurally since the genome was sequenced in 2000. We review the considerable progress made in characterising the Campylobacter glycome including the lipooligosaccharide (LOS), the capsule and O- and N-linked protein glycosylation systems, and speculate on the roles played by glycan surface structures in the life-cycle of C. jejuni.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 37 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ganglioside mimicry by Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) is thought to be a critical factor in the triggering of the Guillain–Barré and Miller–Fisher syndrome neuropathies after C. jejuni infection. The combination of a completed genome sequence and a ganglioside GM1-like LOS structure makes C. jejuni NCTC 11168 a useful model strain for the identification and characterization of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of ganglioside-mimicking LOS. Genome analysis identified a putative LOS biosynthetic cluster and, from this, we describe a putative gene (ORF Cj1139c), which we have termed wlaN, with a significant level of similarity to a number of bacterial glycosyltransferases. Mutation of this gene in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 resulted in a LOS molecule of increased electrophoretic mobility, which also failed to bind cholera toxin. Comparison of LOS structural data from wild type and the mutant strain indicated lack of a terminal β-1,3-linked galactose residue in the latter. The wlaN gene product was demonstrated unambiguously as a β-1,3 galactosyltransferase responsible for converting GM2-like LOS structures to GM1-like by in vitro expression. We also show that the presence of an intragenic homopolymeric tract renders the expression of a functional wlaN gene product phase variable, resulting in distinct C. jejuni NCTC 11168 cell populations with alternate GM1 or GM2 ganglioside-mimicking LOS structures. The distribution of wlaN among a number of C. jejuni strains with known LOS structure was determined and, for C. jejuni NCTC 12500, similar wlaN gene phase variation was shown to occur, so that this strain has the potential to synthesize a GM1-like LOS structure as well as the ganglioside GM2-like LOS structure proposed in the literature.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 35 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative spiral bacterium, is the most common bacterial cause of acute human gastroenteritis and is increasingly recognized for its association with the serious post-infection neurological complications of the Miller–Fisher and Guillain–Barré syndromes. C. jejuni lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of both uncomplicated infection and more serious sequelae, yet the LPS remains poorly characterized. Current studies on C. jejuni suggest that all strains produce lipooligosaccharide (LOS), with about one-third of strains also producing high-molecular-weight LPS (referred to as O-antigen). In this report, we demonstrate the presence of the high-molecular-weight LPS in all C. jejuni strains tested. Furthermore, we show that this LPS is biochemically and genetically unrelated to LOS and is similar to group II and group III capsular polysaccharides. All tested kpsM, kpsS and kpsC mutants of C. jejuni lost the ability to produce O-antigen. Moreover, this correlated with serotype changes. We demonstrate for the first time that the previously described O-antigen of C. jejuni is a capsular polysaccharide and a common component of the thermostable antigen used for serotyping of C. jejuni.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 26 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: HtrA, also known as DegP and probably identical to the Do protease, is a heat shock-induced serine protease that is active in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. Homologues of HtrA have been described in a wide range of bacteria and in eukaryotes. Its chief role is to degrade misfolded proteins in the periplasm. Substrate recognition probably involves the recently described PDZ domains in the C-terminal half of HtrA and, we suspect, has much in common with the substrate recognition system of the tail-specific protease, Prc (which also possesses a PDZ domain). The expression of htrA is regulated by a complex set of signal transduction pathways, which includes an alternative sigma factor, RpoE, an anti-sigma factor, RseA, a two-component regulatory system, CpxRA, and two phosphoprotein phosphatases, PrpA and PrpB. Mutations in the htrA genes of Salmonella, Brucella and Yersinia cause decreased survival in mice and/or macrophages, and htrA mutants can act as vaccines, as cloning hosts and as carriers of heterologous antigens.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 197 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from eight strains of Yersinia pestis which had been cultured at 28°C appeared to be devoid of an O-antigen when analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. LPS isolated from three of these strains which had been cultured at 37°C also appeared to be devoid of an O-antigen. When the LPS from Y. pestis strain CO92 was purified and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the observed signals were in the mass range predicted for molecules containing lipid A plus the core oligosaccharide but lacking an O-antigen. The nucleotide sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92 revealed the presence of a putative O-antigen gene cluster. However, frame-shift mutations in the ddhB, gmd, fcl and ushA genes are likely to prevent expression of the O-antigen thus explaining the loss of phenotype.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 165 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The ompR-envZ two-component regulatory system has been shown to contribute to virulence in a number of enteric bacterial pathogens. A Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 ompR homologue was amplified, cloned and sequenced, showing 99.2% homology to the Escherichia coli OmpR. An isogenic ompR mutant was constructed by reverse genetics-based methodology. The mutant was shown to have increased sensitivity to high osmolarity, high temperature and low pH stresses in vitro. In the murine yersiniosis model, the mutant was attenuated and offered partial protection against wild-type challenge.
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