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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This article examines the world military expenditures in the period 1991-2009, based on an exploratory analysis about the institutional and economic factors that affected the defense budgets in the countries with the largest military expenditures in the world. Furthermore, there is a comparative analysis of the composition of military expenditures in Brazil and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries in the 2000s, expounding differences on the proportions of resources allocated for weapons purchases and payment of personnel. Finally, the article analyzes the different degrees of investments on capital intensity in these countries' militaries, stressing their differences in comparison with the United States.
    Keywords: H56 ; ddc:330 ; military expenditures ; 1990s ; 2000s ; expenditures on military weapons ; expenditures on military personnel ; military's capital intensity ; Militärausgaben ; Brasilien ; Welt
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The paper aims to analyze the relations between the disputes over maritime territories in East Asia, the unfavorable maritime situation of China, and the Chinese military build-up from the early 1990s onwards. From the data collected, it indicates the aspects that make China a country with an unfavorable maritime situation. It also indicates the main features of China's military modernization (particularly in the Navy) and of the maritime territorial disputes in East Asia. It follows that it has occurred in China, especially since the early 2000s, a significant modernization of the national military power, along with a higher priority assigned to naval power. Although sea denial capabilities are still prevalent, there are evidences indicating the development of a power projection navy. Evidences indicate, moreover, a rapid redistribution of military power in East Asia in favor of China, expanding the possibilities of success of a Chinese military action in that space. Furthermore, superiority of China is most evident in the South China Sea, in which military presence of the United States is weaker and where countries have less resources when compared to countries in the East China Sea.
    Keywords: F51 ; ddc:330 ; China ; armed forces ; naval power ; maritime disputes ; East Asia
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to identify whether international transfers of military equipment are predominantly motivated by economic or political reasons. Eight countries were selected to be individually analyzed: the USA, Russia, France, the UK, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Japan. Although all of them consider both political and economic dimensions on their decisions to supply military equipment, the predominance of one of these dimensions - or the balance between them - can be identified for each country. Then they were separated into three groups: the USA, Sweden and Japan, which emphasize the political dimension; France, the UK and Russia, which give more importance to the economic dimension; and Switzerland and Germany, who which consider both dimensions equally important. The analysis concludes that the eight countries consider both dimensions in their decisions, even though in six cases there is a predominance of one of them. The reasons for the prioritization of the political or the economic aspects, however, are different for each country.
    Keywords: F52 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The purpose of this article is to analyze the experiences of Russia and France regarding the state brokerage in the exports of weapons. Such activity is essential to maintain their defense industries' viability, given the dependence that both have on the foreign market. Some of the experiences of these two countries may be a source of lessons for Brazil, at a time when the Brazilian government signals the creation of an institutional arrangement dedicated to carrying out these activities. In the analysis, it was observed that the institutional frameworks for the state brokerage in Russia and France are quite distinct, especially if one considers the greater degree of centralization of such activities in Russia. However, a common element is the provision of "packages" of products, services, funding and offsets - and this seems to be an important element in the conquest/ maintenance of markets in this sector.
    Keywords: F52 ; ddc:330 ; arms exports ; defense industry ; state brokerage ; trading ; offsets ; Rosoboronexport ; Direction générale de l'armement (DGA)
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Pesticides are not only agricultural inputs but also dangerous products, reason why the state must regulate them. However, if scientific evidence about the effects of pesticides is universal, why do regulations vary across countries? This article argues that pesticide regulation depends in part on the relative power of groups that gain and that lose with a certain type of regulation. Regulations are not created and implemented by politicallyneutral state agencies: they result from the relative influence of organized groups. In this "game", groups that concentrate costs or benefits of a hypothetical regulation have more incentives to mobilize than groups for which costs or benefits are diffuse. Yet, this does not prevent the latter from influencing the regulatory process, mainly through norms and scientific knowledge. The text also analyses how the use of pesticides evolved in Brazil since the beginning of the 1990s, focusing on how their use is concentrated in some crops and regions. Finally, the paper suggests a set of policies, with emphasis on preventing regulatory capture: i) maintaining a system of registration of pesticides not centralized in agencies working only to promote agricultural production; ii) creating mechanisms to prevent what the literature calls the "revolving door" problem; iii) increasing the participation of civil society organizations and experts; iv) training civil servants on relations with the private sector, regulation and regulatory capture; and v) maintaining guarantees for the freedom of expression and opinion. Finally, the text explores the potential effects of north-south dynamics on the pesticide regulation in Brazil, especially the fact that the production of pesticides in Brazil is controlled by multinational companies.
    Keywords: Q15 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; pesticides ; politics of regulation ; special interest groups ; advocacy networks ; regulatory capture
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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