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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 23 (1998), S. 525-532 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ; antisense oligodeoxynucleotide ; dopaminergic transmission ; substantia nigra pars compacta ; striatum ; rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the differentiation and growth of developing dopamine (DA) neurons and supports the survival of mature DA cells in culture. However, the neurotrophic role of endogenous BDNF in the adult DA system in vivo has not been well established. To investigate the hypothesis that blockade of endogenous BDNF expression results in DA dysregulation, we used an 18-mer antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) targeted to the first ATG codon of the BDNF transcript. The biological activity of the antisense ODN was initially tested in vitro. In cultured dopaminergic MES 23.5 cells, antisense BDNF (20 μM) effectively reduced BDNF protein expression and cell survival. Furthermore, in primary embryonic mesencephalic cultures, antisense BDNF reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons and inhibited [3H]DA uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The specificity of the antisense molecule was confirmed by comparing its effects with those of a control ODN having the same base composition but in scrambled sequence. In rats, two days following an intranigral or intrastriatal injection of antisense BDNF (0.5 μg), we observed a two-fold and five-fold increase in nigral DA levels, respectively, but no change in striatal DA content. Seven days after an intrastriatal antisense BDNF injection, DA levels were elevated in the striatum apparently due to decreased DA turnover. These observations suggest that inhibition of endogenous BDNF expression tends to augment rather than inhibit nigrostriatal DA transmission. Thus, the biological effects of endogenous BDNF on the nigrostriatal DA system in the adult organism merits further investigation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Surgical and radiologic anatomy 16 (1994), S. 319-323 
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Dorsalis pedis artery ; Lower extremity ; Blood supply ; Anomaly
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Un cas de vascularisation artérielle anormale bilatérale du membre inférieur est présenté. Dans ce cas les deux aa. tibiales antérieures étaient hypoplasiques. Elles gagnaient la loge antérieure de la jambe en traversant la partie haute de la membrane interosseuse. Elles passaient entre les mm. tibial antérieur et long extenseur de l'hallux et se terminait en donnant de nombreuses branches musculaires et fasciales. Les aa. dorsales du pied naissaient des aa. fibulaires. Les aa. fibulaires gagnaient la loge antérieure de la jambe en traversant la partie basse de la membrane interosseuse et avaient ensuite le trajet normal des aa. dorsales du pied. La connaissance des variations anatomiques de la partie distale de l'a. poplitée est importante pour les radiologues pratiquant l'angiographie, les chirurgiens vasculaires et les chirurgiens reconstructifs opérant dans ces régions.
    Notes: Summary A case of bilateral anomalous arterial supply of the lower limb is presented. In this case, both anterior tibial arteries were hypoplastic. These arteries came to the anterior (extensor) compartment by passing superiorly through the interosseous membrane. They ran between the tibialis anterior and the extensor hallucis longus muscles and terminated after giving numerous muscular and fascial branches. The dorsalis pedis arteries originated from the peroneal arteries. The peroneal arteries reached the anterior compartment by piercing the interosseous membrane at its lower part and ran as the dorsalis pedis arteries. Awareness of the anatomical variations in anatomy of the distal popliteal artery is important for angiographers, vascular surgeons and reconstructive surgeons who operate upon these regions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neuro-oncology 3 (1985), S. 245-249 
    ISSN: 1573-7373
    Keywords: diaziquone ; AZQ ; aziridynil-benzoquinone ; brain tumors ; gliomas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Diaziquone, a new alkylating agent which crosses the blood brain barrier, has shown a 20% response rate in phase II studies in heavily pretreated patients. We have treated 23 patients at our institution as part of a multicentric phase II European trial of diaziquone. All had histologically proven malignant glioma unequivocally progressing on CT scan. Prior therapy had consisted of surgical excision (13 patients), cobalt radiotherapy to CNS (13 patients), and chemotherapy with nitrosourea derivatives (11 patients). Six patients had no prior therapy. Median age was 42 years (range 22–69) and performance status was 3+ or better. They were treated with monthly courses of diaziquone 5.5 mg/m2 I.V. (10 min.) × 5 days. Dosage adjustments were made according to leucocyte and platelet nadirs. Thrombocytopenia was the dose limiting toxicity. Very mild gastrointestinal toxicity was observed. One patient developed hemolytic anemia. One complete response (clinical and CT scan), 7 partial clinical responses (3: 〉 50%, 4: 25–50%), and 1 disease stabilization (〈25%) were documented. The longest response has now lasted over 26 months. These preliminary results show that chemotherapy with diaziquone can achieve a response rate as high as 35% in malignant glioma even in patients previously treated with a chemotherapy regimen including a nitrosourea (four of the seven objective responses were seen in such patients). Diaziquone is well tolerated and deserves further study in the management of malignant glioma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
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    Ottawa: Bank of Canada
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: We document an increase in deviations from short-term covered interest rate parity (CIP) in the first half of 2015. Since the Swiss National Bank's (SNB) decision to abandon its minimum exchange rate policy, both the magnitude and volatility of deviations from CIP have increased across several currency pairs. The effect is particularly pronounced for pairs involving the Swiss franc. These deviations are distinct from those observed during the financial crisis. We argue that they are a consequence of reduced liquidity in foreign exchange markets, rather than imbalances in international funding markets. A reduction in the supply of forward contracts, owing to limited dealer capacity following the SNB decision, led to wide bid-ask spreads in the forward market. This friction, pertaining specifically to the foreign exchange market rather than broader funding markets, allowed deviations from CIP to persist.
    Keywords: F31 ; G15 ; ddc:330 ; Exchange rates ; International financial markets
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    München: ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Keywords: I10 ; I18 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; Krankenversicherung ; Reform ; Gesundheitsreform ; Niederlande ; Health insurance ; Reform ; Health care reform ; Netherlands
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 6
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    Hamburg: Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsInstitut (HWWI)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: Gesundheit ist sowohl individuell als auch gesamtwirtschaftlich eine wichtige Determinante der Produktivität sowie der Lebensqualität und der Wohlfahrt. Die Gesundheitsversorgung erfolgt in den meisten Ländern nicht ausschließlich über private Märkte, sondern ist staatlich reguliert und teilweise öffentlich finanziert. Die Gründe hierfür sind einerseits Marktversagen auf privaten Krankenversicherungsmärkten und andererseits normativ begründete Ziele der Gesundheitspolitik, wie z. B. der gleiche Zugang zu gleicher Gesundheitsversorgung für alle Menschen. Somit werden im Gesundheitswesen nicht nur wirtschaftliche Effizienzziele, sondern auch Verteilungs- und Umverteilungsziele verfolgt. Qualität und Effizienz lassen sich daher nur unter Berücksichtigung dieser Ziele bewerten.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 7
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    Ottawa: Bank of Canada
    Publication Date: 2019-06-14
    Description: We compare the Federal Reserve's asset purchase programs with those implemented by the Bank of England and the Swedish Riksbank, and the Swiss National Bank's reserve expansion program. We decompose government bond yields into (i) an expectations component, (ii) a global term premium and (iii) a country-specific term premium to analyze two-day changes in 10-year yields around announcement dates. We find that, in contrast to the Federal Reserve's asset purchases, the programs implemented in these smaller economies have not been able to affect the global term premium and, consequently, their effectiveness in lowering long-term yields has been limited.
    Keywords: E43 ; E52 ; E58 ; G12 ; ddc:330 ; Financial markets ; Interest rates ; Monetary policy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Ottawa: Bank of Canada
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: Inflation-targeting central banks around the world often state their inflation objectives with regard to the consumer price index (CPI). Yet the literature on optimal monetary policy based on models with nominal rigidities and more than one sector suggests that CPI inflation is not always the best choice from a social welfare perspective. We revisit this issue in the context of an estimated multi-sector New-Keynesian small open economy model where sectors are heterogeneous along multiple dimensions. With key parameters of the model estimated using data from an inflation targeting economy, namely Canada, we particularly focus on (i) the role of sector-specific real rigidities, specially in the form of factor mobility costs, and (ii) welfare implications of targeting alternative price indices. Our estimations reveal considerable heterogeneity across sectors, and in several dimensions. Moreover, in contrast to existing studies, our welfare analysis comparing simple optimized policy rules based on alternative sectoral inflation rates provides support for CPI-based targeting policies by central banks. Capital mobility costs matter importantly in this regard.
    Keywords: E4 ; E52 ; F3 ; F4 ; ddc:330 ; Inflation : costs and benefits ; Inflation and prices ; Inflation targets ; Monetary policy framework ; Monetary policy implementation ; Geldpolitik ; Inflation Targeting ; Lebenshaltungsindex ; Kleines-offenes-Land ; Faktormobilität ; Wohlfahrtseffekt ; Statistische Methode ; Kanada
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Ottawa: Bank of Canada
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: We propose alternative single-equation semi-structural models for forecasting inflation in Canada, whereby structural New Keynesian models are combined with time-series features in the data. Several marginal cost measures are used, including one that in addition to unit labour cost also integrates relative price shocks known to play an important role in open-economies. Structural estimation and testing is conducted using identification-robust methods that are valid whatever the identification status of the econometric model. We find that our semi-structural models perform better than various strictly structural and conventional time series models. In the latter case, forecasting performance is significantly better, both in the short run and in the medium run.
    Keywords: C13 ; C53 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Inflation and prices ; Econometric and statistical methods ; Inflationsrate ; Prognose ; Prognoseverfahren ; Lohnstückkosten ; Außenwirtschaft ; Zeitreihenanalyse ; Kanada
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Ottawa: Bank of Canada
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: We assess the implications of price indexation for estimated frequency of price adjustment in sticky price models of business cycles. These models predominantly assume that non-reoptimized prices are indexed to lagged or average inflation. The assumption of price indexation adds tractability although it is not likely reflective of the price practices of firms at the micro level. Under indexation firms have less incentive to adjust their prices, which implies downward bias in the estimated frequency of price changes. To evaluate the bias, we generate data with Calvo-type models without indexation. The artificial data are then used to estimate the frequency of price changes with indexation. Considering different assumptions about the degree of price rigidity and the level of trend inflation in the data-generating model, we find that the estimated indexation bias can be substantial, ranging up to 12 quarters in some cases.
    Keywords: E31 ; E37 ; ddc:330 ; Inflation and prices ; Economic models ; Econometric and statistical methods ; Indexierung ; Betriebliche Preispolitik ; Inflationsrate ; Konjunktur ; Preisrigidität ; Wirtschaftsmodell
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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