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  • 1
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    Oslo: Norges Bank
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Artikkelen presenterer utviklingen i etterspørsel etter kreditt og kredittpraksis fra norske banker siden 2008, slik de er representert i Norges Banks utlånsundersøkelse. Norske banker har rapportert om en betydelig innstramming i kredittpraksis i denne perioden. Norges Banks utlånsundersøkelse gir innsikt i årsakene til denne innstrammingen og på hvilken måte bankene har endret sine lånebetingelser. Det var en betydelig innstramming i kredittpraksis mot foretakene under finanskrisen i 2008-2009, mens innstrammingen i kredittpraksis mot husholdningene har kommet mer gradvis, og i stor grad som respons på nye krav og reguleringer fra myndighetene. Vi finner at strammere lånebetingelser rettet mot husholdningene har påvirket kredittveksten i denne sektoren.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Norwegian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Este capítulo empieza con una definición de los elementos de consenso en la ciencia política sobre el populismo, la idea del "pueblo" versus un "otro". Se agregan dos dimensiones bastante comunes en la caracterización del populismo, la de estilos de liderazgo personalistas y la de desprecio de instituciones tales como los sistemas de frenos y contrapesos. La segunda sección relaciona populismo con el concepto de democracia antiliberal, lo que nos lleva a establecer una contraposición entre populismo y democracia liberal. La tercera sección hace hincapié en la especial importancia del caso argentino en el desarrollo del concepto de populismo en la ciencia política. La cuarta sección analiza la dimensión más contestada de populismo en ciencia policía, la de su ideología. Esto lleva a una diferencia entre la idea de populismo en ciencia política con la idea en economía de populismo como políticas macroeconómicas insostenibles o inconsistentes. En la conclusión se pone el caso argentino dentro del contexto global actual.
    Keywords: H11 ; P51 ; ddc:330 ; maniqueísmo ; populismo político ; democracia antiliberal ; políticas macroeconómicas inconsistentes ; populismo económico ; Argentina
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Vigo: Academia Europea de Dirección y Economia de la Empresa (AEDEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: The aim of the paper is to analize the EFQM model self-assessment process in an small and medium sized enterprise (SME). This paper shows how a self-assessment process is developed and why it may succeed, indicating its advantages, difficulties, and success factors. A case study is used, analyzing primary and secondary data from a private firm. The contribution of this paper is to give a complete overview of the self-assessment process (workshops approach), to provide lessons for managers of other organizations to learn from.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; total quality management ; self-assessment ; EFQM model ; SME
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Vigo: Academia Europea de Dirección y Economia de la Empresa (AEDEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Transaction Cost Analysis provides an appealing framework for examining the role of salary versus incentive compensation because it identifies a set of theoretical constructs for determining the appropriate balance between these components. However, there is no evidence on the performance impact of a compensation plan designed on the theoretical basis of TCA. This work analyses this impact through a sample of 108 salesforces operating in Spain. We consider variables as difficulty of replacing salespeople, uncertainty, output variables adequacy to measure salesforce performance and salesforce size to verify the relationship between the compensation design and the company and salesforce performance. Our results permit us to state that the TCA framework is appropriate for determining the success of a compensation plan for salespeople, specifically regarding salesforce outcomes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; transaction cost economics ; compensation ; sales force ; incentives
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
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    Vigo: Academia Europea de Dirección y Economia de la Empresa (AEDEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: In this article the most relevant aspects of Institutional Economics are presented, specially the approach by Douglas North (1990, 2005) as a consistent theoretical framework for the analysis of new firm creation. The paper revises the evolution of this theory considering the different generations of institutional authors and the basic principals are stated. Finally the application of North's approach is pointed out for the study of the conditioning environmental factors to entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; institutional economics ; entrepreneurship ; new firm creation ; formal and informal factors ; environmental factors ; Douglass North
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 6
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: En la actualidad el uso de Generics está ampliamente difundido y le otorga a la programación un alto grado de reusabilidad y control. En particular cuando se menciona Generics, la reusabilidad y control se da sobre los tipos que deseamos que utilicen nuestras clases, estructuras e interfaces. El uso de genéricos y colecciones genéricas tienden a mejorar el rendimiento, debido a que suele evitar el proceso de boxing y unboxing tan costoso en términos de procesamiento. El concepto "genéricos o generics" es aplicable a clases, interfaces, métodos, delegados y parámetros. Esto implica que gran parte del código puede verse potenciado por esta característica.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: In the period 2000 - 2006, municipal or public schools reduced its enrollment in 186,000 students (13%) in Chile. Meanwhile, privately subsidized schools, receiving the same type of funding, increased their enrollment in 386,000 students (38%). In this paper we distinguish demand factors, associated with parents' decisions, and supply factors, those associated with owners' decisions, to explain the change in the education structure en Chile. We found evidence that the asymmetry in the institutional constraints explain only part of the evolution. Other factors, associated with municipal decisions, which in turn are explained by the asymmetric financing of different schools, explain the main part of the change.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; public education ; descentralization
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 8
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2015-09-10
    Description: Most road accidents in Chile (causing about 1,600 deaths per year) are linked to speeding. A widely used control mechanism all over the world, the speed detectors, enabled in the middle of the 1990's was then suddenly prohibited in Chile through the enactment of a law justified on the idea that radars were only used to raise funds to local governments and in some way, a source of illegal profits. Most road accidents in Chile (causing about 1,600 deaths per year) are linked to speeding. A widely used control mechanism all over the world, the speed detectors, enabled in the middle of the 1990's was then suddenly prohibited in Chile through the enactment of a law justified on the idea that radars were only used to raise funds to local governments and in some way, a source of illegal profits.
    Keywords: D61 ; L91 ; ddc:330 ; road accidents ; value of life ; political economy
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
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    Buenos Aires: Banco Central de la República Argentina (BCRA), Investigaciones Económicas (ie)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Inflation forecasting plays a central role in monetary policy formulation. At the same time, recent international empirical evidence suggests that with the decline in inflation of recent years, the joint dynamics of this variable and its potential predictors has changed and inflation has become more unpredictable. Using a univariate model as a benchmark, we evaluate the predictive capacity of certain causal models linked to different inflation theories, such as the Phillips Curve and a monetary VAR. We also analyze the predictive power of models that use factors that combine the overall variability of a large number of business cycle time series as predictors. We compare their relative performance using a set of parametric and non-parametric tests proposed by Diebold and Mariano (1995). Although the univariate model performs best, as the forecast horizon lengthens, multivariate models performance improves. In particular, a monetary VAR performs better than the univariate ARMA model in the case of a one-year horizon. Nevertheless, when tests are calculated to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in the predictive capacity of models, taking a univariate ARMA model as a benchmark, differences are not statistically significant. Finally, estimated models are pooled to forecast inflation. Some of the forecast combinations outperform the best individual forecast over a one-year horizon. Taking into account that a one year-horizon is relevant for economic policy decisions, the possibility of combining both univariate and multivariate models for forecasting purpose is interesting, because it it can also be helpful to answer specific economic policy questions.
    Keywords: C32 ; E31 ; E37 ; ddc:330 ; Argentina ; inflation forecast ; multivariate models ; pooling ; univariate models ; Inflation ; Prognose ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: En este trabajo se analizan los determinantes de la participación en el Programa Jefes de Hogar (PJH), implementado en la Argentina en abril de 2002. Se avanza también en la descripción de la inserción ocupacional de los beneficiarios del programa. Para el examen de la participación se propone una metodología de estimación de la población blanco del programa, la que permite a su vez evaluar su eficacia para garantizar el Derecho Familiar a la Inclusión Social, fin principal manifiesto en el decreto de creación del PJH. La participación es evaluada en función de un conjunto de variables individuales, familiares y ocupacionales. Dado que la posición en el mercado de trabajo aparece como el principal requisito para participar en el programa, entre las variables ocupacionales se profundiza el análisis observando la trayectoria laboral previa de los actuales beneficiarios. La fuente de datos más importante de esta investigación es la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (que cubre 32 centros urbanos de la Argentina); y el período examinado es el comprendido entre las ondas de mayo de 2001 y octubre de 2002.
    Keywords: I38 ; J88 ; ddc:330 ; Argentinien ; Datenerhebung
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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