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  • 1
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2017-12-12
    Description: Water, Vol. 9, Pages 964: Spanish Agriculture and Water: Educational Implications of Water Culture and Consumption from the Farmers’ Perspective Water doi: 10.3390/w9120964 Authors: Juan-Carlos Tójar-Hurtado Esther Mena-Rodríguez Miguel-Ángel Fernández-Jiménez The responsible management and consumption of water is a challenge that involves all segments of society. Having access to sufficient quality and quantity of water is not only a technological issue, but requires that the adopted measures and programmes take into account the dimensions of society and education. Spanish agriculture, as in other areas of the world, is a major consumer of water and more so than other sectors, including household consumption. Within the field of environmental education, this study covered the water culture and consumption of Andalusian farmers, based on their own perceptions. For this purpose, a questionnaire was created and validated, and included a sample of 1030 farmers selected with pseudorandom number sampling. An analysis of the data showed relevant results with respect to the values and notions supporting the justification for farmer behaviours, both from a cognitive-representative viewpoint and from an affective-expressive stance, as well as assertions made by the irrigators about other key sectors concerning the responsible management of water usage and water consumption. The findings of this study may assist in the design of environmental education programmes addressing this sector, which could also include other similar populations.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 2
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2017-08-11
    Description: Water, Vol. 9, Pages 595: Applications of Hydro-Chemical and Isotopic Tools to Improve Definitions of Groundwater Catchment Zones in a Karstic Aquifer: A Case Study Water doi: 10.3390/w9080595 Authors: Alberto Jiménez-Madrid Silvino Castaño Iñaki Vadillo Carlos Martinez Francisco Carrasco Albert Soler Some researchers have proposed the groundwater protection zone (GPZ) method as a methodological framework for defining safeguard zones of groundwater bodies. Its goal is to protect the quality of water intended for human consumption and to facilitate a common implementation of this method in all European Union member states. One of the criteria used to establish GPZs is to define contributing catchment areas (CCAs). This methodology has been applied to the Sierra de Cañete, a region comprising a carbonate aquifer in the province of Malaga, Spain. The tools used to define CCAs are hydro-chemical and isotopic characterizations, namely water isotopes (i.e., 2H, 18O and tritium) and the isotopes of dissolved sulfates (i.e., 34S and 18O). Traditionally, the Sierra de Cañete aquifer has been divided into six sectors. Hydro-chemical and isotopic characterization differentiated between two large areas in the carbonate aquifer. The southern part presents younger water that is the result of faster recharge and that shows a high level of karstification, while the northern area has a slower flow, and recharge is produced over several years. In addition, the northern part is hydraulically connected to an alluvial aquifer (i.e., Llanos de Almargen) that borders the Sierra de Cañete to the north. This aquifer has high levels of pollution due to agricultural and livestock activities carried out in the Llanos de Almargen area. This pollution is transmitted to the carbonate aquifer when groundwater depletion occurs. Therefore, the Sierra de Cañete GPZ needs to be extended to include the Llanos de Almargen aquifer.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2016-06-02
    Description: Water irrigation systems are required to provide adequate pressure levels in any sort of network. Quite frequently, this requirement is achieved by using pressure reducing valves (PRVs). Nevertheless, the possibility of using hydraulic machines to recover energy instead of PRVs could reduce the energy footprint of the whole system. In this research, a new methodology is proposed to help water managers quantify the potential energy recovering of an irrigation water network with adequate conditions of topographies distribution. EPANET has been used to create a model based on probabilities of irrigation and flow distribution in real networks. Knowledge of the flows and pressures in the network is necessary to perform an analysis of economic viability. Using the proposed methodology, a case study has been analyzed in a typical Mediterranean region and the potential available energy has been estimated. The study quantifies the theoretical energy recoverable if hydraulic machines were installed in the network. Particularly, the maximum energy potentially recovered in the system has been estimated up to 188.23 MWh/year) with a potential saving of non-renewable energy resources (coal and gas) of CO2 137.4 t/year.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 4
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-03-25
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 372: Fog Water Collection: Challenges beyond Technology Water doi: 10.3390/w10040372 Authors: Manzoor Qadir Gabriela Jiménez Rebecca Farnum Leslie Dodson Vladimir Smakhtin The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, calling for access to safe water and sanitation for all by the year 2030 supports the efforts in water-scarce countries and regions to go beyond conventional resources and tap unconventional water supplies to narrow the water demand-supply gap. Among the unconventional water resources, the potential to collect water from the air, such as fog harvesting, is by far the most under-explored. Fog water collection is a passive, low maintenance, and sustainable option that can supply fresh drinking water to communities where fog events are common. Because of the relatively simple design of fog collection systems, their operation and maintenance are minimal and the associated cost likewise; although, in certain cases, some financially constrained communities would need initial subsidies. Despite technology development and demonstrated benefits, there are certain challenges to fog harvesting, including lack of supportive policies, limited functional local institutions, inexpert communities, gender inequality, and perceived high costs without undertaking comprehensive economic analyses. By addressing such challenges, there is an opportunity to provide potable water in areas where fog intensity and duration are sufficient, and where the competition for clean water is intensifying because water resources are at a far distance or provided by expensive sources.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 5
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2017-10-18
    Description: Water, Vol. 9, Pages 799: Optimization Strategy for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Irrigation Systems by Micro Hydropower: Practical Application Water doi: 10.3390/w9100799 Authors: Modesto Pérez-Sánchez Francisco Sánchez-Romero Helena Ramos P. Amparo López-Jiménez Analyses of possible synergies between energy recovery and water management are essential for achieving sustainable advances in the performance of pressurized irrigation networks. Nowadays, the use of micro hydropower in water systems is being analysed to improve the overall energy efficiency. In this line, the present research is focused on the proposal and development of a novel optimization strategy for increasing the energy efficiency in pressurized irrigation networks by energy recovering. The recovered energy is maximized considering different objective functions, including feasibility index: the best energy converter must be selected, operating in its best efficiency conditions by variation of its rotational speed, providing the required flow in each moment. These flows (previously estimated through farmers’ habits) are compared with registered values of flow in the main line with very suitable calibration results, getting a Nash–Sutcliffe value above 0.6 for different time intervals, and a PBIAS index below 10% in all time interval range. The methodology was applied to a Vallada network obtaining a maximum recovered energy of 58.18 MWh/year (41.66% of the available energy), improving the recovered energy values between 141 and 184% when comparing to energy recovery considering a constant rotational speed. The proposal of this strategy shows the real possibility of installing micro hydropower machines to improve the water–energy nexus management in pressurized systems.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 6
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 497: The Long-Term Hydrological Performance of Permeable Pavement Systems in Northern Spain: An Approach to the “End-of-Life” Concept Water doi: 10.3390/w10040497 Authors: Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda Valerio C. Andres-Valeri Carlos Costales-Campa Iñigo Cabezon-Jimenez Fernando Cadenas-Fernandez Porous mixtures and Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements (ICBP) are the most widely used surfaces in Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS). Despite the fact that there are many studies based on the hydrological performance of PPS, there are few long-term studies that identify the end of life of PPS regarding their hydrological performance. A field study has been developed over 10 years in the experimental car park “Las Llamas” in the city of Santander, Northern Spain. Permeability was measured in 37 car park bays (nine Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete, nine Porous Asphalt, and 17 ICBP of two different designs). Tests were conducted under the Spanish Standard NLT-327/00 for the porous-mixture surfaces and the ASTM methods C1701/C1701M-17a and C1781/C1781M-15 for porous mixtures and ICBP, respectively. No maintenance was carried out in this car park since it was opened to traffic in 2008, allowing for the assessment and identification of the hydrological failure of each surface. The research showed that after 10 years of operation without maintenance, the bays constructed using porous mixtures were completely clogged, reaching the end of their operational life after nine years. However, ICBP maintained high infiltration rates, showing better resilience to sediment clogging. Further research is needed to confirm the evolution of ICBP surfaces.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 7
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 529: PATs Operating in Water Networks under Unsteady Flow Conditions: Control Valve Manoeuvre and Overspeed Effect Water doi: 10.3390/w10040529 Authors: Modesto Pérez-Sánchez P. Amparo López-Jiménez Helena M. Ramos The knowledge of transient conditions in water pressurized networks equipped with pump as turbines (PATs) is of the utmost importance and necessary for the design and correct implementation of these new renewable solutions. This research characterizes the water hammer phenomenon in the design of PAT systems, emphasizing the transient events that can occur during a normal operation. This is based on project concerns towards a stable and efficient operation associated with the normal dynamic behaviour of flow control valve closure or by the induced overspeed effect. Basic concepts of mathematical modelling, characterization of control valve behaviour, damping effects in the wave propagation and runaway conditions of PATs are currently related to an inadequate design. The precise evaluation of basic operating rules depends upon the system and component type, as well as the required safety level during each operation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 8
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 733: Validation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Novel Residence Time Distribution Analysis in Mixing at Cross-Junctions Water doi: 10.3390/w10060733 Authors: Daniel Hernández-Cervantes Xitlali Delgado-Galván José L. Nava P. Amparo López-Jiménez Mario Rosales Jesús Mora Rodríguez In Water Distribution Networks, the chlorine control is feasible with the use of water quality simulation codes. EPANET is a broad domain software and several commercial computer software packages base their models on its methodology. However, EPANET assumes that the solute mixing at cross-junctions is “complete and instantaneous”. Several authors have questioned this model. In this paper, experimental tests are developed while using Copper Sulphate as tracer at different operating conditions, like those of real water distribution networks, in order to obtain the Residence Time Distribution and its behavior in the mixing as a novel analysis for the cross-junctions. Validation tests are developed in Computational Fluid Dynamics, following the k-ε turbulence model. It is verified that the mixing phenomenon is dominated by convection, analyzing variation of Turbulent Schmidt Number vs. experimental tests. Having more accurate mixing models will improve the water quality simulations to have an appropriate control for chlorine and possible contaminants in water distribution networks.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 9
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 166: Comparison of Bootstrap Confidence Intervals Using Monte Carlo Simulations Water doi: 10.3390/w10020166 Authors: Roberto Flowers-Cano Ruperto Ortiz-Gómez Jesús León-Jiménez Raúl López Rivera Luis Perera Cruz Design of hydraulic works requires the estimation of design hydrological events by statistical inference from a probability distribution. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compared coverage of confidence intervals constructed with four bootstrap techniques: percentile bootstrap (BP), bias-corrected bootstrap (BC), accelerated bias-corrected bootstrap (BCA) and a modified version of the standard bootstrap (MSB). Different simulation scenarios were analyzed. In some cases, the mother distribution function was fit to the random samples that were generated. In other cases, a distribution function different to the mother distribution was fit to the samples. When the fitted distribution had three parameters, and was the same as the mother distribution, the intervals constructed with the four techniques had acceptable coverage. However, the bootstrap techniques failed in several of the cases in which the fitted distribution had two parameters.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 10
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 347: Epibenthic Communities on Artificial Reefs in Greece, Mediterranean Sea Water doi: 10.3390/w10040347 Authors: Katerina Achilleos Maria Patsalidou Carlos Jimenez Nikolaos Kamidis Andreas Georgiou Antonis Petrou Argyris Kallianiotis The marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean are in alarming condition due to the complex and cumulative impacts of anthropogenic activities and natural disturbances. Management, conservation, and restoration of resources in these impacted ecosystems are among the priorities set by Mediterranean countries. Artificial reefs (ARs) are one of the countermeasures widely promoted. The present study describes the hard substrate epibenthic communities found on three ARs (Ierisssos, Kalymnos, and Preveza) located in the Aegean and Ionian Seas (Greece). Samples were collected from the ARs seasonally (four times/year), during 2013 and 2014. Overall, 117 species were identified and a multivariate analysis showed that each area holds a distinct diversity. Serpulid polychaetes dominate Ierissos and Preveza communities, while gastropods were identified as the prevailing taxa in Kalymnos. No seasonal effects were detected, suggesting “stability” and good adaptation of the communities to the local environmental conditions. Salinity was found to affect the community structure. The results of this study illustrate the need for comparative research on ecological processes under contrasting environmental abiotic and biotic local conditions affecting epibenthic communities.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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