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  • Articles  (20)
  • BMJ Open  (20)
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  • 1
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2017-02-15
    Description: Objective To assess changes in incidence, diagnostic procedures, comorbidity profiles, length of hospital stay (LOHS), economic costs and in-hospital mortality (IHM) associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods We identified patients hospitalised with IPF in Spain from 2004 to 2013. Data were collected from the National Hospital Discharge Database. Results The study population comprised 22 214 patients. Overall crude incidence increased from 3.82 to 6.98 admissions per 100 000 inhabitants from 2004 to 2013 (p〈0.05). The percentage of lung biopsies decreased significantly from 10.68% in 2004 to 9.04% in 2013 (p〈0.05). The percentage of patients with a Charlson comorbidity index ≥2 was 15.14% in 2004, increasing to 26.95% in 2013 (p〈0.05). IHM decreased from 14.77% in 2004 to 13.72% in 2013 (adjusted OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). Mean LOHS was 11.87±11.18 days in 2004, decreasing to 10.20±11.12 days in 2013 (p〈0.05). The mean cost per patient increased from 4838.51 in 2004 to 5410.90 in 2013 (p〈0.05). Conclusions The frequency of hospital admissions for IPF increased during the study period, as did healthcare costs. However, IHM and LOHS decreased.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology, Respiratory medicine
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 2
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2017-11-10
    Description: Objectives To compare the type of surgical procedures used, comorbidities, in-hospital complications (IHC) and in-hospital outcomes between women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and age-matched women without diabetes who were hospitalised with breast cancer. In addition, we sought to identify factors associated with IHC in women with T2DM who had undergone surgical procedures for breast cancer. Design Retrospective study using the National Hospital Discharge Database, 2013–2014. Setting Spain. Participants Women who were aged ≥40 years with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer and who had undergone a surgical procedure. We grouped admissions by T2DM status. We selected one matched control for each T2DM case. Main outcome measures The type of procedure (breast-conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy), clinical characteristics, complications, length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. Results We identified 41 458 admissions (9.23% with T2DM). Overall, and in addition to the surgical procedure, we found that comorbidity, hypertension and obesity were more common among patients with T2DM. We also detected a higher incidence of mastectomy in women with T2DM (44.69% vs 42.42%) and a greater rate of BCS in patients without T2DM (57.58% vs 55.31%). Overall, non-infectious complications were more common among women with T2DM (6.40% vs 4.56%). Among women who had undergone BCS or a mastectomy, IHC were more frequent among diabetics (5.57% vs 3.04% and 10.60% vs 8.24%, respectively). Comorbidity was significantly associated with a higher risk of IHC in women with diabetes, independent of the specific procedure used.province Conclusions Women with T2DM who undergo surgical breast cancer procedures have more comorbidity, risk factors and advanced cancer presentations than matched patients without T2DM. Mastectomies are more common in women with T2DM. Moreover, the procedures among women with T2DM were associated with greater IHC. Comorbidity was a strong predictor of IHC in women with T2DM.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 3
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Objectives To describe trends in the incidence and outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalisations among patients with or without diabetes in Spain (2004–2013). Design Retrospective, observational study using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database (Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD)). Setting Spain. Participants We used national hospital discharge data to select all hospital admissions for CAP. Main outcome measures Incidence was calculated overall and stratified by diabetes status: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and no diabetes. Results We identified 901 136 admissions for CAP (24.8% with T2DM). Incidence rates of CAP increased significantly in patients with T2DM over time. The incidence was higher among people with T2DM for all time periods. Patients with T2DM were older and had higher comorbidity index than non-diabetics. Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased over time for both groups. Time trend analyses showed significant decreases in mortality during admission for CAP for patients with and without T2DM. Factors associated with higher mortality in both groups included: older age, higher comorbidity, mechanical ventilation, red cell transfusion, readmission and Staphylococcus aureus detection . Diabetes was associated with a lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.94) after a CAP hospitalisation. Conclusions CAP incidence rates were higher and increased over time at a higher rate among patients with T2DM. Mortality decreased over time in all groups. The presence of diabetes is not a risk factor for death during admission for CAP.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology, Diabetes and Endocrinology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 4
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2017-01-13
    Description: Objective To describe and analyse hospitalisations for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) involving anticoagulants. We also analysed the progress of the reactions over time, the factors related with ADRs. Design A retrospective, descriptive, epidemiological study. Setting This study used the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database (Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos, CMBD), over a 4-year period. Participants We selected CMBD data corresponding to hospital discharges with a diagnosis of ADRs to anticoagulants (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code E934.2) in any diagnostic field during the study period. Main outcome measures We calculated the annual incidence of ADRs to anticoagulants according to sex and age groups. The median lengths of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality (IHM) were also estimated for each year studied. Bivariate analyses of the changes in variables according to year were based on Poisson regression. IHM was analysed using logistic regression models. The estimates were expressed as ORs and their 95% CI. Results During the study period, 50 042 patients were hospitalised because of ADRs to anticoagulants (6.38% of all ADR-related admissions). The number of cases increased from 10 415 in 2010 to 13 891 in 2013. Cumulative incidence of ADRs to anticoagulants was significantly higher for men than women and in all age groups. An adjusted multivariate analysis revealed that IHM did not change significantly over time. We observed a statistically significant association between IHM and age, with the highest risk for the ≥85 age group (OR 2.67; 95% CI 2.44 to 2.93). Conclusions The incidence of ADRs to anticoagulants in Spain increased from 2010 to 2013, and was significantly higher for men than women and in all age groups. Older patients were particularly susceptible to being hospitalised with an adverse reaction to an anticoagulant.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology, Pharmacology and therapeutics, Public health
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-08-07
    Description: Introduction Decreased plasma vitamin D (VD) levels are linked to cardiovascular damage. However, clinical trials have not demonstrated a benefit of VD supplements on left ventricular (LV) remodelling. Anterior ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the best human model to study the effect of treatments on LV remodelling. We present a proof-of-concept study that aims to investigate whether VD improves LV remodelling in patients with anterior STEMI. Methods and analysis The VITamin D in Acute Myocardial Infarction (VITDAMI) trial is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 144 patients with anterior STEMI will be assigned to receive calcifediol 0.266 mg capsules (Hidroferol SGC)/15 days or placebo on a 2:1 basis during 12 months. Primary objective: to evaluate the effect of calcifediol on LV remodelling defined as an increase in LV end-diastolic volume ≥10% (MRI). Secondary objectives: change in LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, ejection fraction, LV mass, diastolic function, sphericity index and size of fibrotic area; endothelial function; plasma levels of aminoterminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide, galectin-3 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; levels of calcidiol (VD metabolite) and other components of mineral metabolism (fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), the soluble form of its receptor klotho, parathormone and phosphate). Differences in the effect of VD will be investigated according to the plasma levels of FGF-23 and klotho. Treatment safety and tolerability will be assessed. This is the first study to evaluate the effect of VD on cardiac remodelling in patients with STEMI. Ethics and dissemination This trial has been approved by the corresponding Institutional Review Board (IRB) and National Competent Authority (Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS)). It will be conducted in accordance with good clinical practice (International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use - Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP)) requirements, ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and national laws. The results will be submitted to indexed medical journals and national and international meetings. Trial registration number NCT02548364; Pre-results.
    Keywords: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Renal medicine
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 6
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2017-10-06
    Description: Introduction Traditionally, research and practice addressing mental health has been conducted within a unidimensional model, explaining mental health as the presence/absence of psychological problems (distress or psychopathological symptoms). More recently, accumulative evidence has supported a bi-dimensional model, which conceptualises psychological problems and psychological strengths (well-being) as related-yet-distinct continua that, when considered together, yields a more comprehensive understanding of individuals. The DetectaWeb Project is a web-based early detection assessment of the mental health continuum (MHC) for children and adolescents and aims to: develop a web-based platform for screening of the MHC, including both psychological problems (anxiety, depression and suicidality) and personal strengths (emotional, cognitive/psychological and social aspects); examine the prevalence of the MHC among children and adolescents; and analyse key determinants (risk and protective factors) of the MHC. Methods and analysis We will conduct an ongoing, multicentre observational, cross-sectional study of Spanish children and adolescents. Participants will be assessed through a web-based platform. In order to validate the web-based screening system, a clinical reappraisal will be completed among a subsample of respondents. To elucidate youth’s levels of subjective distress and well-being, we will include measures of anxiety, depression, suicidality, well-being, externalising problems and socio-demographic variables. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained at all sites. All participants will sign a free and informed consent form before the assessment. Results of the study will be communicated during national and international meetings in the field of clinical and health psychology with children and adolescents. Publications will be sought in journals usually read by psychologists or psychiatrists involved in the development of epidemiological studies and interventions for mental health promotion based on resilience building for children and adolescents.
    Keywords: Open access, Mental health
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 7
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2017-08-06
    Description: Objectives To examine trends overtime in the incidence and in-hospital outcomes of vascular dementia (VaD) hospitalisations in patients aged 70 years or over suffering and not suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) between 2004 and 2013 in Spain. Design Retrospective study. Setting Spain. Participants National hospital discharge data were used; patients aged ≥70, discharged from a hospital with VaD as a primary diagnosis, were selected. Main outcome measures Overall incidence, therapeutic and diagnostic procedures, comorbidities, infectious complications, duration of hospital stays and in-hospital mortality (IHM). Results In total, 170 607 admissions for VaD (34.3% with T2DM) were identified. We found a significant upward linear trend in the incidence of VaD for men and women with and without diabetes between 2004 and 2013. The adjusted incidence was higher among people with T2DM over the study period. We found a higher incidence in men than women in all years under study. A positive association between T2DM and VaD hospitalisation was found among both men (IRR 2.14, 95% CI 2.11 to 2.16) and women (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.22; 95% CI 2.19 to 2.25). Pneumonia was significantly associated with a higher mortality (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.52 to 2.67). We found that percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was associated with lower IHM (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.45), while parenteral nutrition had the opposite effect (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.41). There was no association between diabetes and higher IHM (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.06). The time-trend analyses of the entire sample showed a significant reduction in mortality in patients with VaD (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). Conclusions Incidence rates for VaD hospitalisations were twice as high in patients with diabetes compared with those without. Men had significantly higher incidence rates than women, regardless of diabetes status. In both groups studied, pneumonia and parenteral nutrition were associated with mortality while percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was associated with survival. Having diabetes was not associated with higher IHM after hospitalisation with VaD.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology, Diabetes and Endocrinology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 8
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2017-09-13
    Description: Objective Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as obesity, is crucial to prevent adverse long-term effects on individuals’ health. Therefore, the aims were: (1) to explore the robustness of neck circumference (NC) as a predictor of CVD and examine its association with numerous anthropometric and body composition indices and (2) to release sex and age-specific NC cut-off values to classify youths as overweight/obese. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 23 primary schools and 17 secondary schools from Spain. Participants 2198 students (1060 girls), grades 1–4 and 7–10. Measures Pubertal development, anthropometric and body composition indices, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively), cardiorespiratory fitness, blood sampling triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), glucose and inflammatory markers. Homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and cluster of CVD risk factors were calculated. Results NC was positively correlated with all anthropometric and body composition indices. NC was negatively associated with maximum oxygen consumption (R 2 =0.231, p〈0.001 for boys; R 2 =0.018, p〈0.001 for girls) and positively associated with SBP, DBP, TC/HDL-c, TG, HOMA, complement factors C-3 and C-4, leptin, adiponectin and clustered CVD risk factor in both sexes (R 2 from 0.035 to 0.353, p〈0.01 for boys; R 2 from 0.024 to 0.215, p〈0.001 for girls). Moreover, NC was positively associated with serum C reactive protein, LDL-c and visfatin only in boys (R 2 from 0.013 to 0.107, p〈0.05). Conclusion NC is a simple, low-cost and practical screening tool of excess of upper body obesity and CVD risk factors in children and adolescents. Paediatricians can easily use it as a screening tool for overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. For this purpose, sex and age-specific thresholds to classify children and adolescents as normal weight or overweight/obese are provided.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 9
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: Introduction In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima ) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Methods and analysis Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. Ethics and dissemination This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666.
    Keywords: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 10
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2017-03-17
    Description: Introduction For the optimal management of children with cystic fibrosis, there are currently no efficient tools for the precise adjustment of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, either for advice on appropriate dietary intake or for achieving an optimal nutrition status. Therefore, we aim to develop a mobile application that ensures a successful nutritional therapy in children with cystic fibrosis. Methods and analysis A multidisciplinary team of 12 partners coordinate their efforts in 9 work packages that cover the entire so-called ‘from laboratory to market’ approach by means of an original and innovative co-design process. A cohort of 200 patients with cystic fibrosis aged 1–17 years are enrolled. We will develop an innovative, clinically tested mobile health application for patients and health professionals involved in cystic fibrosis management. The mobile application integrates the research knowledge and innovative tools for maximising self-management with the aim of leading to a better nutritional status, quality of life and disease prognosis. Bringing together different and complementary areas of knowledge is fundamental for tackling complex challenges in disease treatment, such as optimal nutrition and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis. Patients are expected to benefit the most from the outcomes of this innovative project. Ethics and dissemination The project is approved by the Ethics Committee of the coordinating organisation, Hospital Universitari La Fe (Ref: 2014/0484). Scientific findings will be disseminated via journals and conferences addressed to clinicians, food scientists, information and communications technology experts and patients. The specific dissemination working group within the project will address the wide audience communication through the website ( http://www.mycyfapp.eu ), the social networks and the newsletter.
    Keywords: Open access, Evidence based practice, Gastroenterology and hepatology, Health informatics, Medical education and training, Medical management, Paediatrics
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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