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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Following World War I, rent control became a standard policy response to the housing shortage and the resulting rent increases. Typically, economists blame it for creating inefficiencies in the housing market and beyond. We investigate whether rental market regulations (including rent control, protection of tenants from eviction, and housing rationing) had any effects in a middle-income Latin American economy, such as Argentina. To answer this question, we take advantage of a wide range of housing market indicators and restrictive rental regulation indices covering almost one century. Using a standard OLS model and MARS, a non-linear estimation technique, we find that rental market regulations have exerted a statistically significant negative impact on the growth rates of the real housing rents. However, they were only effective for short periods following both World Wars, when regulations were novel and particularly strong.
    Keywords: C21 ; E31 ; R38 ; ddc:330 ; Argentina ; housing rents ; rent control ; rental market regulations
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: Longitudinal studies have documented improvements in parents' life satisfaction due to childbearing, followed by postpartum adaptation back to baseline. However, the details underlying this process remain largely unexplored. Based on past literature, set-point theory, and results from an exploratory sample, we investigated empirically how first childbirth affected satisfaction with specific domains of life. In a preregistered study, we compared parents with matched childless respondents in their trajectories of life satisfaction, and also satisfaction with family life, health, sleep, work, housework, leisure, dwelling, household income, and personal income. First-time parents and childless respondents were matched in a procedure combining exact and propensity score matching. Using the population-representative German SOEP data (N = 3,370), longitudinal multilevel models revealed heterogeneous effects of childbirth on different domains of satisfaction: Both mothers' and fathers' satisfaction with family life increased temporarily in a similar fashion to life satisfaction before going back to baseline within five years after childbirth. However, only mothers experienced drastic losses to satisfaction with sleep and satisfaction with personal income. For the remaining domains, parents' satisfaction largely resembled that of the matched childless respondents. These divergent domain trajectories underscore the need for multivariate analyses in life satisfaction research.'
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Life Satisfaction ; Satisfaction Domains ; Childbirth ; Parents ; Propensity Score Matching
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-05
    Description: With regard to the IT/ITES industry, globalisationand the rapid improvements in communications technologies, the decoupling of hardware from software opened a window of opportunity for countries rich in human capital such as India to becomeinvolved in the IT value chain. To this end, the Indian state created the enabling conditions for Indian IT firms to engage with global markets by particularly enhancing the quality of human resources, providing for tax holidays and infrastructure facilities. Further, the state has increasingly withdrawn from the regulation of the sector.Nonetheless, employees across the IT/ITES industry have benefited in terms of higher salaries, better working conditions and mobility in terms of status in society. At the same time,issuesrelated tojob security, social protection, working hours and work-life balanceshow shortcomings.Moreover,given that the work outsourced to India is at the lower end of the value chain, a highly educated workforce has been relegated to mundane and dead-end jobs in terms of employment.Thus, the gains from participation in the global economy do not seem to be effectively disseminated.With regard to enabling rights, the fear of reprisals by employers has made joining trade unions ineffective in practice. Nonetheless, the formation of UNITES andFITE though unsuccessful are some developments that point to the available space for creative and collaborative confrontation in the industry.The challenge remains for unions to grasp the emerging opportunities and ally themselves with other civil society organisations to courageously and creatively confront the practices of the IT industry.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; GPN ; IT/ITES Industry ; India ; Workers ; State ; Social Upgrading ; Unions ; Resistance
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-11
    Description: We here explore the link between individual concerns about crime and the distribution of income in Germany. We make use of 1995-2017 microdata from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) to show that both individual polarization and relative deprivation have statistically-significant effects on reported concerns about crime, while relative satisfaction plays no role. At the aggregate level, the main driver is equally income polarization, whereas the standard measure of inequality, the Gini index, plays no significant role.
    Keywords: I31 ; I32 ; D60 ; ddc:330 ; concerns about crime ; deprivation ; inequality ; polarization ; SOEP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: The spillover effect of cigarette taxes on youth marijuana use has been the subject of intense public debate. Opponents of cigarette taxes warn that tax hikes will cause youths to substitute toward marijuana. On the other hand, public health experts often claim that because tobacco is a "gateway" drug, higher cigarette taxes will deter youth marijuana use. Using data from the National and State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) for the period 1991-2017, we explore the relationship between state excise taxes on cigarettes and teen marijuana use. In general, our results fail to support either of the above hypotheses. Rather, we find little evidence to suggest that teen marijuana use is sensitive to changes in the state cigarette tax. This null result holds for the sample period where cigarette taxes are observed to have the largest effect on teen cigarette use and across a number of demographic groups in the data. Finally, we find preliminary evidence that the recent adoption of state e-cigarette taxes is associated with a reduction in youth marijuana use.
    Keywords: I12 ; I18 ; K42 ; ddc:330 ; cigarette taxes ; teen marijuana use ; e-cigarette taxes ; youth risky behavior
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-30
    Description: High-frequency changes in interest rates around FOMC announcements are a standard method of measuring monetary policy shocks. However, some recent studies have documented puzzling effects of these shocks on private-sector forecasts of GDP, unemployment, or inflation that are opposite in sign to what standard macroeconomic models would predict. This evidence has been viewed as supportive of a "Fed information effect" channel of monetary policy, whereby an FOMC tightening (easing) communicates that the economy is stronger (weaker) than the public had expected. We show that these empirical results are also consistent with a "Fed response to news" channel, in which incoming, publicly available economic news causes both the Fed to change monetary policy and the private sector to revise its forecasts. We provide substantial new evidence that distinguishes between these two channels and strongly favors the latter; for example, (i) high-frequency stock market responses to Fed announcements, (ii) a new survey that we conduct of individual Blue Chip forecasters, and (iii) regressions that include the previously omitted public macroeconomic data releases all indicate that the Fed and Blue Chip forecasters are simply responding to the same public news, and that there is little if any role for a "Fed information effect".
    Keywords: E52 ; E58 ; E43 ; ddc:330 ; Federal Reserve ; forecasts ; survey ; Blue Chip ; Delphic forward guidance
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-30
    Description: Expectations about macro-finance variables, such as inflation, vary significantly across genders, even within the same household. We conjecture that traditional gender roles expose women and men to different economic signals in their daily lives, which in turn produce systematic variation in expectations. Using unique data on the contributions of men and women to household grocery chores, their resulting exposure to price signals, and their inflation expectations, we show that the gender expectations gap is tightly linked to participation in grocery shopping. We also document a gender gap in other economic expectations and discuss how it might affect economic choices.
    Keywords: C90 ; D14 ; D84 ; E31 ; E52 ; G11 ; ddc:330 ; gender gap ; expectations ; perceptions ; experiences ; exposure
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-30
    Description: In this work, we first discuss the limitations of traditional financial advice, which led to the emergence of robo-advising. We then describe the main features of robo-advising and propose a taxonomy of robo-advisors based on four defining dimensions---personalization, discretion, involvement, and human interaction. Building on these premises, we delve into the theoretical and empirical evidence on the design and effects of robo-advisors on two major sets of financial decisions, that is, investment choices (for both short- or long-term horizons) and the allocation of financial resources between spending and saving. We conclude by elaborating on five broadly open issues in robo-advising, which beget theoretical and empirical research by scholars in economics, finance, psychology, law, philosophy, as well as regulators and industry practitioners.
    Keywords: D14 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; FinTech ; behavioral economics ; algorithmic advice ; A1 ; financial regulation ; financial literacy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-30
    Description: There is a well-known gender difference in time allocation within the household, which has important implications for gender differences in labor market outcomes. We ask how malleable this gender difference in time allocation is to culture. In particular, we ask if US immigrants allocate tasks differently depending upon the characteristics of the source countries from which they emigrated. Using data from the 2003-2017 waves of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), we find that first-generation immigrants, both women and men, from source countries with more gender equality (as measured by the World Economic Forum's Global Gender Gap Index) allocate tasks more equally, while those from less gender equal source countries allocate tasks more traditionally. These results are robust to controls for immigration cohort, years since migration, and other own and spouse characteristics. There is also some indication of an effect of parent source country gender equality for second-generation immigrants, particularly for second-generation men with children. Our findings suggest that broader cultural factors do influence the gender division of labor in the household.
    Keywords: J13 ; J15 ; J16 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; housework ; childcare ; gender ; immigration ; time allocation
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-30
    Description: Employment helps reduce the risk of poverty. Through a randomized controlled trial, we evaluate the impact of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to low-income families with dependent children on household members' labor supply. Recipients are required to attend labor-market-oriented mentoring courses as a condition of the transfer. One year after admission to the program, fathers assigned to the CCT program are more likely to work (+14 percent) than fathers assigned to an unconditional cash transfer program or to a pure control group. No effect arises for mothers. Results seem to be explained by improved family networks and increased parental investments in activities that enhance labor market opportunities.
    Keywords: I10 ; I20 ; J24 ; I31 ; ddc:330 ; conditional cash transfers ; poverty ; household labor supply ; mentoring courses
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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