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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Following World War I, rent control became a standard policy response to the housing shortage and the resulting rent increases. Typically, economists blame it for creating inefficiencies in the housing market and beyond. We investigate whether rental market regulations (including rent control, protection of tenants from eviction, and housing rationing) had any effects in a middle-income Latin American economy, such as Argentina. To answer this question, we take advantage of a wide range of housing market indicators and restrictive rental regulation indices covering almost one century. Using a standard OLS model and MARS, a non-linear estimation technique, we find that rental market regulations have exerted a statistically significant negative impact on the growth rates of the real housing rents. However, they were only effective for short periods following both World Wars, when regulations were novel and particularly strong.
    Keywords: C21 ; E31 ; R38 ; ddc:330 ; Argentina ; housing rents ; rent control ; rental market regulations
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: Longitudinal studies have documented improvements in parents' life satisfaction due to childbearing, followed by postpartum adaptation back to baseline. However, the details underlying this process remain largely unexplored. Based on past literature, set-point theory, and results from an exploratory sample, we investigated empirically how first childbirth affected satisfaction with specific domains of life. In a preregistered study, we compared parents with matched childless respondents in their trajectories of life satisfaction, and also satisfaction with family life, health, sleep, work, housework, leisure, dwelling, household income, and personal income. First-time parents and childless respondents were matched in a procedure combining exact and propensity score matching. Using the population-representative German SOEP data (N = 3,370), longitudinal multilevel models revealed heterogeneous effects of childbirth on different domains of satisfaction: Both mothers' and fathers' satisfaction with family life increased temporarily in a similar fashion to life satisfaction before going back to baseline within five years after childbirth. However, only mothers experienced drastic losses to satisfaction with sleep and satisfaction with personal income. For the remaining domains, parents' satisfaction largely resembled that of the matched childless respondents. These divergent domain trajectories underscore the need for multivariate analyses in life satisfaction research.'
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Life Satisfaction ; Satisfaction Domains ; Childbirth ; Parents ; Propensity Score Matching
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-05
    Description: With regard to the IT/ITES industry, globalisationand the rapid improvements in communications technologies, the decoupling of hardware from software opened a window of opportunity for countries rich in human capital such as India to becomeinvolved in the IT value chain. To this end, the Indian state created the enabling conditions for Indian IT firms to engage with global markets by particularly enhancing the quality of human resources, providing for tax holidays and infrastructure facilities. Further, the state has increasingly withdrawn from the regulation of the sector.Nonetheless, employees across the IT/ITES industry have benefited in terms of higher salaries, better working conditions and mobility in terms of status in society. At the same time,issuesrelated tojob security, social protection, working hours and work-life balanceshow shortcomings.Moreover,given that the work outsourced to India is at the lower end of the value chain, a highly educated workforce has been relegated to mundane and dead-end jobs in terms of employment.Thus, the gains from participation in the global economy do not seem to be effectively disseminated.With regard to enabling rights, the fear of reprisals by employers has made joining trade unions ineffective in practice. Nonetheless, the formation of UNITES andFITE though unsuccessful are some developments that point to the available space for creative and collaborative confrontation in the industry.The challenge remains for unions to grasp the emerging opportunities and ally themselves with other civil society organisations to courageously and creatively confront the practices of the IT industry.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; GPN ; IT/ITES Industry ; India ; Workers ; State ; Social Upgrading ; Unions ; Resistance
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-11
    Description: We here explore the link between individual concerns about crime and the distribution of income in Germany. We make use of 1995-2017 microdata from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) to show that both individual polarization and relative deprivation have statistically-significant effects on reported concerns about crime, while relative satisfaction plays no role. At the aggregate level, the main driver is equally income polarization, whereas the standard measure of inequality, the Gini index, plays no significant role.
    Keywords: I31 ; I32 ; D60 ; ddc:330 ; concerns about crime ; deprivation ; inequality ; polarization ; SOEP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: The spillover effect of cigarette taxes on youth marijuana use has been the subject of intense public debate. Opponents of cigarette taxes warn that tax hikes will cause youths to substitute toward marijuana. On the other hand, public health experts often claim that because tobacco is a "gateway" drug, higher cigarette taxes will deter youth marijuana use. Using data from the National and State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) for the period 1991-2017, we explore the relationship between state excise taxes on cigarettes and teen marijuana use. In general, our results fail to support either of the above hypotheses. Rather, we find little evidence to suggest that teen marijuana use is sensitive to changes in the state cigarette tax. This null result holds for the sample period where cigarette taxes are observed to have the largest effect on teen cigarette use and across a number of demographic groups in the data. Finally, we find preliminary evidence that the recent adoption of state e-cigarette taxes is associated with a reduction in youth marijuana use.
    Keywords: I12 ; I18 ; K42 ; ddc:330 ; cigarette taxes ; teen marijuana use ; e-cigarette taxes ; youth risky behavior
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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