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  • Other Sources  (591)
  • 2015-2019  (591)
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  • 1
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    s.l.: International Journal of Business Science & Applied Management
    Publication Date: 2018-12-20
    Description: Agricultural biomass supply chain consists of a number of interacted sequential operations affected by various variables, such as weather conditions, machinery systems, and biomass features. These facts make the process of biomass supply chain as a complex system that requires computational tools, e.g. simulation and mathematical models, for their assessment and analysis. A biomass supply chain simulation model developed on the ExtendSim 8 simulation environment is presented in this paper. A number of sequential operations are applied in order biomass to be mowed, harvested, and transported to a biorefinery facility. Different operational scenarios regarding the travel distance between field and biorefinery facility, number of machines, and capacity of machines are analyzed showing how different parameters affect the processes within biomass supply chain in terms of time and cost. The results shown that parameters such as area of the field, travel distance, number of available machines, capacity of the machines, etc. should be taken into account in order a less time and/ or cost consuming machinery combination to be selected.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; agricultural biomass ; supply chain management ; simulation model ; agricultural machinery ; operations management
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-09
    Description: Theory predicts that the equilibrium real interest rate, r*t, and the perceived trend in inflation, ð*t, are key determinants of the term structure of interest rates. However, term structure analyses generally assume that these endpoints are constant. Instead, we show that allowing for time variation in both r*t and ð*t is crucial for understanding the empirical dynamics of U.S. Treasury yields and risk pricing. Our evidence reveals that accounting for fluctuations in both r*t and ð*t substantially increases the accuracy of long-range interest rate forecasts, helps predict excess bond returns, improves estimates of the term premium in long-term interest rates, and captures a substantial share of interest rate variability at low frequencies.
    Keywords: E43 ; E44 ; E47 ; ddc:330 ; yield curve ; macro-finance ; inflation trend ; equilibrium real interest rate ; shifting endpoints ; bond risk premia
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Three billion people cook their food on biomass-fueled fires. This practice contributes to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions from cooking, however, cookstoves made from modern materials and distributed through energy-intensive supply chains have higher embodied CO2-equivalent than traditional cookstoves. No studies exist examining whether lifetime emissions savings from fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves offset embodied emissions, and if so, by what margin. This paper is a complete life cycle inventory of 'The Berkeley-Darfur Stove,' disseminated in Sudan by the non-profit Potential Energy. We estimate the embodied CO2-equivalent in the cookstove associated with materials, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life is 17kg of CO2-equivalent. Assuming a mix of 55% non-renewable biomass and 45% renewable biomass, five years of service, and a conservative 35% reduction in fuel use relative to a three-stone fire, the cookstove will offset 7.5 tonnes of CO2-equivalent. A one-to-one replacement of a three-stone fire with the cookstove will save roughly 440 times more CO2-equivalent than it 'costs' to create and distribute. Over its five-year life, we estimate the total use-phase emissions of the cookstove to be 13.5 tonnes CO2-equivalent, and the use-phase accounts for 99.9% of cookstove life cycle emissions. The dominance of use-phase emissions illuminate two important insights: (1) without a rigorous program to monitor use-phase emissions, an accurate estimate of life cycle emissions from biomass cookstoves is not possible, and (2) improving a cookstove's avoided emissions relies almost exclusively on reducing use-phase emissions even if use-phase reductions come at the cost of substantially increased non-use-phase emissions.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Quezon City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: Providing agricultural insurance to farmers and fisherfolk in the Philippines has been implemented for nearly three decades. While it is agreed that agricultural insurance is crucial in assisting farmers, fisherfolk, and governments in lessening the negative financial impact of natural events, issues of providing premium subsidies and being tied to credit in the Philippines remain to be important policy issues. This paper reviews available information about partnerships between local government units (LGUs) and the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation. The aim is to look at these innovations that may promote and enhance agricultural insurance in the Philippines. Providing for full premium subsidies and as a form of loan to the farmers was implemented by the LGUs reviewed in this paper. Further study is needed to determine which scheme works best in terms of increasing coverage over the long term and ensuring financial viability.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; agricultural insurance ; LGUs ; Philippine Crop Insurance ; subsidy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Oslo: Norges Bank
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: We empirically examine how the global carry trade affects the dynamics of spot exchange rates and interest rates across 13 countries from 2000, through the world financial crisis, until the end of 2011. Our model identifies the weekly carry trade position in each currency by matching data on forex trading flows with the predictions of a dynamic portfolio allocation problem that exploits the predictability in excess currency returns (deviations from uncovered interest parity). Using these carry positions produce two surprising results: First, in nine countries carry trades are an economically significant driver of interest rate differentials (vs. U.S. rates). Second, the carry trade only affects the dynamics of spot exchange rates insofar as it is contributes to total forex order flow; (i.e., flows generated by the carry trade and all other trading motives). These findings contradict the conventional view that sudden large movements in exchange rates are attributable to the carry trade. They suggest, instead, that the effects of the global carry trade are primarily concentrated in bond markets.
    Keywords: F3 ; F4 ; G1 ; ddc:330 ; exchange rate dynamics ; microstructure ; order flow
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Quezon City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: In the Philippines, women and children with disabilities were found to have lower literacy and school participation rates, and generally have lower educational attainment, than male persons with disability (PWDs) and nondisabled children. This paper is part of the joint project of the Philippine Institute for Development Studies and the Institute of Developing Economies. It looked into the school participation of children with disability in Mandaue City and San Remigio, Cebu, Philippines. Using survey data (collected involving PWD enumerators) and key informant interviews with various stakeholders, the study found that school participation among PWD children is generally low in both study sites. Possible reasons for low school participation are: type and severity of impairment, distance of school (especially in rural area, San Remigio), household size, and income. Some recommendations include making sure that assistive devices given to PWD children match their needs, possible learning livelihood and basic health care modules/trainings for parents, exploring ways to train more teachers (including the Alternative Learning System or ALS) to handle children with disabilities, and possible local government unit partnerships to provide venues for the ALS. Lastly, the study recommends pushing for more awareness to make schools not just "child friendly" but also "PWD friendly".
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; school participation ; Person with disability (PWD) children ; San Remigio ; Mandaue City ; Cebu ; City ; Philippines
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Quezon City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: To reduce the risks and vulnerability to sudden income shocks faced by households due to natural calamities, disability, illnesses and other causes, ensuring that social protection programs are designed in a relevant and effective manner is crucial. This study examines the coverage of several social protection programs with focus on social insurance schemes like the SSS/GSIS, PhilHealth and social pension programs. The idea is to profile those with access to these schemes, examine potential exclusion issues and leakages, and provide insights for improving access to insurance schemes. This paper likewise examines access to social insurance with a gender perspective to help determine any need for differentiated intervention or program design for men and women.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Social protection ; Philippines ; social insurance ; gender
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Goethe University, Center for Financial Studies (CFS)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-21
    Description: A counterparty credit limit (CCL) is a limit imposed by a financial institution to cap its maximum possible exposure to a specified counterparty. Although CCLs are designed to help institutions mitigate counterparty risk by selective diversification of their exposures, their implementation restricts the liquidity that institutions can access in an otherwise centralized pool. We address the question of how this mechanism impacts trade prices and volatility, both empirically and via a new model of trading with CCLs. We find empirically that CCLs cause little impact on trade. However, our model highlights that in extreme situations, CCLs could serve to destabilize prices and thereby influence systemic risk.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Counterparty Credit Limits ; Counterparty Risk ; Price Formation ; Market Design ; Systemic Risk
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-27
    Description: A consensus has recently emerged that a number of variables in addition to the level, slope, and curvature of the term structure can help predict interest rates and excess bond returns. We demonstrate that the statistical tests that have been used to support this conclusion are subject to very large size distortions from a previously unrecognized problem arising from highly persistent regressors and correlation between the true predictors and lags of the dependent variable. We revisit the evidence using tests that are robust to this problem and conclude that the current consensus is wrong. Only the level and the slope of the yield curve are robust predictors of excess bond returns, and there is no robust and convincing evidence for unspanned macro risk.
    Keywords: E43 ; E44 ; E47 ; ddc:330 ; yield curve ; spanning ; bond returns ; small-sample bias ; robust inference
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Quezon City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: This paper contributes to the scant body of literature on inequalities among and within ethnic groups in the Philippines by examining both the vertical and horizontal measures in terms of opportunities in accessing basic services such as education, electricity, safe water, and sanitation. The study also provides a glimpse of the patterns of inequality in Mindanao. The results show that there are significant inequalities in opportunities in accessing basic services within and among ethnic groups in the Philippines. Muslims (particularly the indigenous people) are the worst-off ethnic groups while the nonindigenous/non-Muslim groups are the better-off groups. Disparities in terms of literacy rate and access to electricity and sanitation between ethnic groups, however, appear to be narrowing between 2000 and 2010.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Philippines ; income inequality ; ethnic groups ; inequality ; indigenous people
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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