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  • 1
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    Barcelona: OmniaScience
    Publication Date: 2018-12-07
    Description: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the similarities and differences between the benefits derived from implementing the ISO 9001 and the ISO 14001 standards. Methodology/Approach: The paper reviews the literature using an electronic search in the ScienceDirect, ABI/Inform, Emerald databases to identify papers focusing on the adoption of the ISO 9001 and 14001 standards and the benefits derived from implementing them. Findings: The paper identifies 82 articles about ISO 9001 and 29 about ISO 14001. Although some differences can be observed between the benefits considered by ISO 9001 and 14001, there is a great degree of coincidence in the benefits studied. The review suggests 13 benefits as the most usually analyzed (including environmental performance for the case of the ISO 14001 standard) by scholars. It is suggested that both standards have clear benefits on operational, people and customer results and that the effects on financial performance are inconclusive. Limitations/implications: One limitation of this paper is that the works identified are conditioned by the search strategy used. In addition, other key words could be included in future studies such as operational, market, quality, financial performance, and customer satisfaction in order to expand this search. Originality/Value: The main contribution is that the paper identifies the literature gap and future research proposals with regard to the benefits of the ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 standards.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; ISO 9001 ; ISO 14001 ; benefits ; performance ; literature review
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2014-04-03
    Description: Tumourigenic transformation of normal cells into cancer typically involves several steps resulting in acquisition of unlimited growth potential, evasion of apoptosis and non-responsiveness to growth inhibitory signals. Both genetic and epigenetic changes can contribute to cancer development and progression. Given the vast genetic heterogeneity of human cancers and difficulty to monitor cancer-initiating events in vivo , the precise relationship between acquisition of genetic mutations and the temporal progression of epigenetic alterations in transformed cells is largely unclear. Here, we use an in vitro model system to investigate the contribution of cellular immortality and oncogenic transformation of primary human cells to epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation and gene expression. Our data demonstrate that extension of replicative life span of the cells is sufficient to induce accumulation of DNA methylation at gene promoters and large-scale changes in gene expression in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, continuous expression of cooperating oncogenes in immortalized cells, although essential for anchorage-independent growth and evasion of apoptosis, does not affect de novo DNA methylation at promoters and induces subtle expression changes. Taken together, these observations imply that cellular immortality promotes epigenetic adaptation to highly proliferative state, whereas transforming oncogenes confer additional properties to transformed human cells.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
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    BioMed Central
    Publication Date: 2014-09-12
    Description: Background: The effects of ezetimibe on cholesterol metabolism in HIV-infected patients receiving boosted protease inhibitors have not been thoroughly assessed. The aim of this study was to assess cholesterol homeostasis in patients with PI associated dyslipidemia and its relationship with the response to treatment with the cholesterol-absorption inhibitor ezetimibe. Methods: Fifteen patients with ritonavir-boosted PI-containig therapy and LDL-cholesterol 〉 3.36 mmol/L (〉130 mg/dL) were assessed at baseline and after an 8-week course of ezetimibe 10 mg/d. Serum non-cholesterol sterols were measured at each visit as markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption. Total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol triglycerides, apolipoproteins A1 and B, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, CD4 cells and HIV-1 RNA were also measured. Results: Ezetimibe treatment was well tolerated in all patients and resulted in significant reductions in total cholesterol (-11.4%, p = .002), LDL-cholesterol (-20.4%, p = .003), non-HDL-cholesterol (-13.4%, p = .002) and apolipoprotein B (-9.1%, p = .021).Treatment with ezetimibe was associated with decreased cholesterol absorption markers (campesterol-to-cholesterol ratio -43.0%, p = .001; sitosterol-to-cholesterol ratio -41.9%, p = .001) and increased synthesis markers (lathosterol-to-cholesterol ratio 53.2%, p = .005). Baseline absorption or synthesis markers were unrelated to the response to treatment. CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA remained unchanged. Conclusions: The level of cholesterol absorption or synthesis does not appear to be a major determinant of the responsiveness to ezetimibe in patients on ritonavir-boosted PI-containing therapy.Trial registration: EudraCT: 2006-006156-36
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2334
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 4
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    BioMed Central
    Publication Date: 2014-07-09
    Description: Background: Analgesics are among the most commonly consumed drugs by the world populations. Within the broader context of self-medication, pain relief occupies a prominent position. Our study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-medication with analgesics among the Spanish population and to identify predictors of self-medication, including psychological disorders, psychological dysfunction, mental health status, and sociodemographic and health-related variables. Methods: We used individualized secondary data retrieved from the 2009 European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) for Spain to conduct a nationwide, descriptive, cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiology study on self-medication with analgesics among adults (individuals aged at least 16 years) of both genders living in Spain. A total of 7,606 interviews were analysed. ). The dichotomous dependent variables chosen were the answers "yes" or "no" to the question In the last 2 weeks have you taken the medicines not prescribed for you by a doctor for joint pain, headache, or low back pain?" Independent variables were sociodemographic, comorbidity, and healthcare resources. Results: A total of 7,606 individuals reported pain in any of the locations (23.7%). In addition, analgesic consumption was self-prescribed in 23.7% (1,481) of these subjects. Forty percent (40.1%) of patients self-medicated for headache, 15.1% for low back pain, and 6.7% for joint pain. The variables significantly associated with a greater likelihood of self-medication of analgesics, independently of pain location were: age 16-39 years (2.36 〈 AOR 〈 3.68), higher educational level (1.80 〈 AOR
    Electronic ISSN: 1472-6904
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-12-16
    Description: Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the Central Nervous System with two major underlying etiopathogenic processes: inflammation and neurodegeneration. The latter determines the prognosis of this disease. MS is the main cause of non-traumatic disability in middle-aged populations.FindingsThe MS-VisualPath Cohort was set up to study the neurodegenerative component of MS using advanced imaging techniques by focusing on analysis of the visual pathway in a middle-aged MS population in Barcelona, Spain. We started the recruitment of patients in the early phase of MS in 2010 and it remains permanently open. All patients undergo a complete neurological and ophthalmological examination including measurements of physical and cognitive disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale; Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and neuropsychological tests), disease activity (relapses) and visual function testing (visual acuity, color vision and visual field). The MS-VisualPath protocol also assesses the presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), general quality of life (SF-36) and visual quality of life (25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire with the 10-Item Neuro-Ophthalmic Supplement). In addition, the imaging protocol includes both retinal (Optical Coherence Tomography and Wide-Field Fundus Imaging) and brain imaging (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Finally, multifocal Visual Evoked Potentials are used to perform neurophysiological assessment of the visual pathway.DiscussionThe analysis of the visual pathway with advance imaging and electrophysilogical tools in parallel with clinical information will provide significant and new knowledge regarding neurodegeneration in MS and provide new clinical and imaging biomarkers to help monitor disease progression in these patients.
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-0500
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 6
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-12-16
    Description: We propose the analog-digital quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi and Dicke models using circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). We find that all physical regimes, in particular those which are impossible to realize in typical cavity QED setups, can be simulated via unitary decomposition into digital steps. Furthermore, we show the emergence of the Dirac equation dynamics from the quantum Rabi model when the mode frequency vanishes. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of this proposal under realistic superconducting circuit scenarios. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep07482
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2013-10-30
    Description: Vascular remodeling refers to alterations in the structure of resistance vessels contributing to elevated systemic vascular resistance in hypertension. We start with some historical aspects, underscoring the importance of Glagov’s contribution. We then move to some basic concepts on the biomechanics of blood vessels and explain the definitions proposed by Mulvany for specific forms of remodeling, especially inward eutrophic and inward hypertrophic. The available evidence for the existence of remodeled resistance vessels in hypertension comes next, with relatively more weight given to human, in comparison with animal data. Mechanisms are discussed. The impact of antihypertensive drug treatment on remodeling is described, again with emphasis on human data. Some details are given on the three mechanisms to date which point to remodeling resistance arteries as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. We terminate by considering the potential role of remodeling in the pathogenesis of endorgan damage and in the perpetuation of hypertension.
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-0392
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 8
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2013-12-04
    Description: The design of a novel band-pass filter with narrow-band features based on an electromagnetic resonator at 6.4 GHz is presented. A prototype is manufactured and characterized in terms of transmission and reflection coefficient. The selective passband and suppression of the second harmonic make the filter suitable to be used in a C band frequency range for radar systems and satellite/terrestrial applications. To avoid substantial interference for this kind of applications, passive components with narrow band features and small dimensions are required. Between 3.6 GHz and 4.2 GHz the band-pass filter with harmonic suppression should have an attenuation of at least 35 dB, whereas for a passband, less than 10% is sufficient.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 9
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    BioMed Central
    Publication Date: 2013-12-18
    Description: Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower limbs is a cardiovascular disease highly prevalent particularly in the asymptomatic form. Its prevalence starts to be a concern in low coronary risk countries like Spain. Few studies have analyzed the relationship between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and cardiovascular morbi-mortality in low cardiovascular risk countries like Spain where we observe significant low incidence of ischemic heart diseases together with high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between pathological ABI and incidence of cardiovascular events (coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, symptomatic aneurism of abdominal aorta, vascular surgery) and death in the 〉49 year population-based cohort in Spain (ARTPER). Methods: Baseline ABI was measured in 3,786 randomly selected patients from 28 Primary Health Centers in Barcelona, distributed as: ABI =1.4 arterial calcification (AC), ABI 0.9-1.4 healthy; and followed during 4 years. Results: 3,307 subjects were included after excluding those with previous vascular events. Subjects with abnormal ABI were older with higher proportion of men, smokers and diabetics. 260 people presented cardiovascular events (incidence 2,117/100,000 person-years) and 124 died from any cause (incidence 978/100,000 person-years). PAD had two-fold greater risk of coronary disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.2) and increased risk of vascular surgery (HR = 5.6, 95%CI 2.8-11.5) and mortality (HR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.4-2.5). AC increased twice risk of cerebrovascular events (HR = 1.9, 95%CI 1.0-3.5) with no relationship with ischemic heart disease. Conclusions: PAD increases coronary disease risk and AC cerebrovascular disease risk in low cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population. ABI could be a useful tool to detect patients at risk in Primary Health Care.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2261
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 10
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2012-12-20
    Description: The ‘Standard European Vector Architecture’ database (SEVA-DB, http://seva.cnb.csic.es ) was conceived as a user-friendly, web-based resource and a material clone repository to assist in the choice of optimal plasmid vectors for de-constructing and re-constructing complex prokaryotic phenotypes. The SEVA-DB adopts simple design concepts that facilitate the swapping of functional modules and the extension of genome engineering options to microorganisms beyond typical laboratory strains. Under the SEVA standard, every DNA portion of the plasmid vectors is minimized, edited for flaws in their sequence and/or functionality, and endowed with physical connectivity through three inter-segment insulators that are flanked by fixed, rare restriction sites. Such a scaffold enables the exchangeability of multiple origins of replication and diverse antibiotic selection markers to shape a frame for their further combination with a large variety of cargo modules that can be used for varied end-applications. The core collection of constructs that are available at the SEVA-DB has been produced as a starting point for the further expansion of the formatted vector platform. We argue that adoption of the SEVA format can become a shortcut to fill the phenomenal gap between the existing power of DNA synthesis and the actual engineering of predictable and efficacious bacteria.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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