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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Digestive diseases and sciences 45 (2000), S. 976-981 
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: butyrate ; ulcerative colitis ; mesalazine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Butyrate represents the main source of energy for colonic epithelial cells; however, its availabilty/utilization is impaired in ulcerative colitis (UC). In the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, the safety and efficacy of colonic targeted oral sodium butyrate tablets, coated with a pH-dependent soluble polymer, have been evaluated in ulcerative colitis. Thirty patients with mild to moderate colitis underwent a six-week course of oral sodium butyrate (4 g/day) plus oral mesalazine (2.4 g/day), (Group A) or of oral mesalazine plus placebo (Group B). Clinical, endoscopic, and histologic data were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Twenty-five patients completed the study (12 in group A, 13 in group B). No untoward side effects were reported. In group A, seven patients underwent remission and four improved; in Group B the numbers were 5 and 5, respectively. After treatment, all clinical parameters had significantly improved in both treatment arms compared to pretreatment findings. The UC disease activity index (UCDAI) score decreased from 7.27 ± 2.02 to 2.58 ± 2.19 (P 〈 0.05) in the combined treatment group and from 6.07 ± 1.60 to 3.46 ± 1.98 (P 〈 0.05) in group B. The endoscopic and histologic scores also significantly improved after treatment in both groups (P 〈 0.05). The difference between the two treatment arms was not significant, but a significantly better improvement vs baseline values (P 〈 0.05) was observed in the combined treatment group vs the mesalazine group, when considering both the clinical index (Δ9.58 ± 4.19 vs 5.92 ± 3.48) and the UCDAI score (Δ4.67 ± 2.19 vs 2.54 ± 2.18). A more favorable trend, although not significant, was observed for all individual parameters in group A. In conclusion, results of the present pilot study indicate that oral butyrate is safe and well tolerated. These data also suggest that oral butyrate may improve the efficacy of oral mesalazine in active ulcerative colitis and prompt the need of a large scale investigation to confirm the present findings.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular evolution 50 (2000), S. 258-263 
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Key words: Genetic code theories — Random code distributions — Coevolution — Biosynthetic relationships between amino acids — Hypergeometric distribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. A paper (Amirnovin R, J Mol Evol 44:473–476, 1997) seems to undermine the validity of the coevolution theory of genetic code origin by shedding doubt on the connection between the biosynthetic relationships between amino acids and the organization of the genetic code, at a time when the literature on the topic takes this for granted. However, as a few papers cite this paper as evidence against the coevolution theory, and to cast aside all doubt on the subject, we have decided to reanalyze the statistical bases on which this theory is founded. We come to the following conclusions: (1) the methods used in the above referred paper contain certain mistakes, and (2) the statistical foundations on which the coevolution theory is based are extremely robust. We have done this by critically appraising Amirnovin's paper and suggesting an alternative method based on the generation of random codes which, along with the method reported in the literature, allows us to evaluate the significance, in the genetic code, of different sets of amino acid pairs in biosynthetic relationships. In particular, by using this method and after building up a certain set of amino acid pairs reflecting the expectations of the coevolution theory, we show that the presence of this set in the genetic code would be obtained, purely by chance, with a probability of 6 × 10−5. This observation seems to provide particularly strong support to the coevolution theory.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Although large hiatal hernia may cause bleeding from Cameron erosions, its role in iron deficiency anaemia has been debated, and no data are available on the treatment of these patients with proton pump inhibitors.Aims : To determine the prevalence of large hiatal hernia in out-patients with iron deficiency anaemia and the role of proton pump inhibitors in the prevention of recurrence of anaemia.Methods : Two hundred and twenty-eight out-patients underwent upper/lower endoscopy. Those with large hiatal hernia were given an oesophagogram, discontinued iron supplementation and received proton pump inhibitor treatment with (group 1) or without (group 2) surgery. Anaemia was re-assessed during 1 year of follow-up.Results : Large hiatal hernia was the likely cause of anaemia in 21 patients (9.2%). The median haemoglobin and ferritin values at the diagnosis of anaemia were 7.9 g/dL and 6 µg/L, respectively. Cameron erosions were found in 33% of patients. Ten and eleven patients were included in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Haemoglobin values were 13.8 g/dL and 13.4 g/dL at 3 months of follow-up, and 13.4 g/dL and 13.8 g/dL at 1 year of follow-up, in groups 1 and 2, respectively.Conclusions : Large hiatal hernia may cause iron deficiency anaemia, even without Cameron erosions. Surgery in combination with proton pump inhibitor therapy is no better than proton pump inhibitor therapy alone in preventing the recurrence of anaemia.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd.
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It has been reported that 50% of patients with atrophic body gastritis have positive Helicobacter pylori antibody titres only. In atrophic body gastritis, a decrease in H. pylori antibodies after eradication treatment has been reported, suggesting that serology may indicate an active H. pylori infection.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Aim:To investigate the time course of H. pylori antibodies and gastric inflammation after eradication treatment in patients with atrophic body gastritis, and to determine whether serology alone can be considered as a valid tool to assess the efficacy of eradication treatment in patients with atrophic body gastritis.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods:Twenty-seven patients with atrophic body gastritis (12 serologically H. pylori-positive only, ABG-S+; 15 H. pylori-positive at histology and serology, ABG-H+) were included in the treatment group, and 17 patients (all ABG-S+) in the no treatment group. All patients had gastroscopy plus biopsies evaluated according to the updated Sydney system and H. pylori immunoglobulin G determination: in the treatment group, at baseline and 6 and 24 months after eradication (bismuth-based triple regimens); in the no treatment group, at baseline and after 3 years.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Results:In the treatment group, in ABG-S+ patients, H. pylori antibodies decreased significantly 6 months after treatment [37.5 U/mL (16–100 U/mL) vs. 15 U/mL (0–100 U/mL), P 〈 0.01], but 2 years after treatment no further decrease occurred. In addition, in ABG-H+ patients, a significant decrease in H. pylori antibodies occurred 6 months after treatment [45 U/mL (12.5–100 U/mL) vs. 31 U/mL (0–65 U/mL), P 〈 0.01], but a further decrease was also observed 2 years after treatment [20 U/mL (0–56 U/mL), P 〈 0.01]. In ABG-S+ patients, no correlation was observed between the H. pylori antibodies and gastric inflammation score, whereas, in the ABG-H+ group, this correlation was extremely significant (r=0.5991, P 〈 0.0001). In the no treatment group, at follow-up, a significant decrease in H. pylori antibodies was observed [26 U/mL (15–100 U/mL) vs. 22 U/mL (0–53 U/mL), P 〈 0.05], but the gastric body inflammation remained unchanged.〈section xml:id="abs1-5"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusions:This study shows that, in ABG-S+ patients after eradication treatment, serology does not keep in step with gastric inflammation. This suggests that, in patients with atrophic body gastritis, serology alone may not be valid for the assessment of the efficacy of eradication treatment.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Helicobacter pylori infection induces atrophic body gastritis, but the long-term effect of its cure on body atrophy is unclear.Aim : To investigate the long-term effects of H. pylori cure on gastric morpho-functional parameters in patients with atrophic body gastritis.Methods : Forty patients with atrophic body gastritis were cured of H. pylori infection. Gastroscopy with biopsies, gastrin and pepsinogen I levels and basal and stimulated acid secretion were evaluated before and 6–12 months after treatment.Results : At eradication assessment (6–12 months), in eight of the 40 patients, body atrophy was no longer observed, whereas in 32 of the 40 it remained substantially unchanged (2.03 ± 0.12 vs. 1.83 ± 0.15). In the eight patients with reversed body atrophy, gastrinaemia decreased significantly with respect to pre-treatment values (265 ± 59.9 pg/mL vs. 51.8. ± 6.04 pg/mL), and basal and stimulated acid secretion increased significantly after cure. In the 32 patients still presenting body atrophy, gastrinaemia was similar topre-treatment values (457 ± 76.04 pg/mL vs. 335.1 ± 58.8 pg/mL). At follow-up (21–25 and 32–70 months), the eight patients with reversed body atrophy continued with normal gastrinaemia (35.3 ± 10.1 pg/mL vs. 38.5 ± 8.8 pg/mL), but in the 19 patients with continued atrophy, both corporal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia remained substantially unchanged.Conclusions : Following successful treatment in patients with atrophic body gastritis and H. pylori infection, long-term histological investigations are crucial in order to detect reversed body damage or to confirm continued body atrophy.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science, Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 81 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The study on wobbler mouse has shown that the combined treatment with low doses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) fully prevented motor neurone death and forelimb impairment up to 9–12 weeks of a mouse's life. The effect was accompanied by the prevention of the early hypertrophy of wobbler neurones, an effect likely due to the promotion of neuronal survival. At the 18th week, wobbler mice treated with IGF-I + GAGs still showed significantly improved forelimb function, reduced muscle atrophy and a higher number of cervical motor neurones. IGF-I alone and GAGs alone were active up to the 3rd week of treatment; thereafter the beneficial effects of single treatments decreased drastically. GAGs and IGF-I treatments also affected IGF-I plasma and muscle levels. In wobbler mice there was a progressive reduction in IGF-I plasma levels that was prevented by IGF-I or GAGs alone and greatly increased, even above heterozygote levels, by the combination treatment. Such a powerful increase was correlated by a small enhancement in insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) plasma levels, while treatment with IGF-I alone affected very significantly both IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3. Co-treatment also prevented the decrease in IGF-I content observed in vehicle-treated wobbler mice forelimb muscles.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Helicobacter 8 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background. Helicobacter pylori gastritis induces reversible lowering of Ascorbic Acid (AA) intragastric concentrations. No studies have been aimed at determining the gastric juice AA concentration of atrophic body gastritis (ABG) patients. Uric Acid (UA), is another potent hydro-soluble scavenger of ROS and its possible modification in the gastric juice of patients with H. pylori gastritis have never been investigated. This study was aimed at investigating the levels of AA and UA in the plasma and gastric juice of ABG patients, compared with H. pylori positive patients without corporal atrophy, and with healthy individuals.Materials and Methods. Thirteen ABG patients (Group 1): 32 Chronic non-atrophic H. pylori gastritis patients (Group 2); and 13 healthy stomach controls (Group 3) attending gastroscopy with gastric biopsies (antrum = 3, corpus = 3) had plasma and intragastric levels of AA and UA measured.Results. Intragastric AA concentration was significantly lower in group 1 (median 0.21 µg/ml, range 0.1–24) compared both with groups 2 (median 5.5 µg/ml, range 0.1–33.2) (p = 0.043) and 3 (median 14.9 µg/ml, range 0.34–44.8) (p = 0.0028). Intragastric UA was not different between the three groups. Intragastric AA concentration resulted negatively correlated with the intragastric pH (Spearman r = −0.47, p = 0.0003). In patients with gastritis (groups 1 and 2) there was a significant negative correlation between the sum of the Sydney Score variables in the body mucosa, and AA in the gastric juice (Spearman r = −0.55; p = 0.0001).Conclusion. The study shows that intragastric pH is the key factor for the depletion of gastric juice AA observed in patients with corporal atrophy and to a lower extent with nonatrophic H. pylori gastritis.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 88 (2000), S. 6571-6577 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In2O3–SeO2 mixed oxide thin films have been obtained by thermal evaporation of a stoichiometric In–Se starting charge and subsequent thermal annealing in an oxygen flow. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, small area electron diffraction, and digital image processing have been employed in order to investigate the structure and the morphology of the films obtained. Hall effect and resistivity measurements in a vacuum and in a controlled atmosphere have been performed to obtain information about physical properties of these films. The experimental data show evidence that the electrical conductivity of these films undergoes a remarkable variation due to exposure to small concentrations of NO in dry synthetic air or argon. To interpret the behavior of such films, an adsorption kinetic model has been developed and the conductivity variation as a function of gas concentrations, time, and temperature has been derived. The fitting of the theoretical and experimental behavior allows us to determine the adsorption kinetic parameters. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Terra nova 16 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3121
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Venetian Basin was affected by flexure related to the Southalpine shortening phase during the Middle Miocene – Early Pliocene. This downbending is quantified here using a two-dimensional flexural model. A recently improved data set on basin geometry based on the bottom of the Serravallian–Tortonian clastic wedge, on palaeobathymetry and gravity anomalies is used to constrain the components of flexure and to test the importance of the initial bathymetry in evaluating the contribution of surface loads to deflection. A good fit is obtained assuming a northward broken plate configuration of the downbent Adriatic plate with an effective elastic thickness of 20 km. Results highlight that, in the studied region, flexure related to the Eastern Southern Alps is totally due to surface loads (topographic load partly replacing initial bathymetry) and that no hidden loads are required. Furthermore, the palaeobathymetry contributes up to 50% to the total flexure in the studied region.
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