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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    ISSN: 1741-038X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Technology , Economics
    Notes: Widespread recognition of the strategic imperative posed by a turbulent external environment has brought into focus a key challenge for firms - that of increasing involvement in innovation by the staff in the organisation. Much research has suggested that organisations that mobilise a large proportion of their staff to participate in innovation can make significant gains. Achieving this depends on a systematic process of organisational development in which the facilitative patterns of behavioural routines are extended and reinforced, so that they become a major culture change. This paper reports on progress with this organisational development methodology using a detailed case study of its use within a major mining company in South Africa. It makes use of a reference model framework to help structure and direct the change process towards enabling higher involvement in innovation. In particular it explores practical issues involved in moving a large organisation along a path of high involvement innovation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Accreditation and quality assurance 5 (2000), S. 485-487 
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Keywords: Keywords Diabetes care quality ; CamitPro ; DiabCare Q-net NL ; Diabetes mellitus automatic quality assessment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  To implement the St. Vincent Declaration Action Programme, initiatives have been started in the quality development of diabetes care across Europe. The main elements of the quality development cycle implemented in our hospital were realized by the use of the software package ‘CamitPro’ and participation in ‘the DiabCare Q-net NL’ network. From 1997 to 1999, 955, 1468, and 1624 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 were integrated in the DiabCare Q-net NL network by using ‘CamitPro’ software, respectively. These patients showed substantial improvement in all of the clinical measures monitored. In addition, there was a drop in HbA1c level. From 1997 to 1999, an HbA1c interval of 5.1%–8.3% (mean up to mean +4SD) was recorded for 66%, 76% and 81% of the patients, respectively. An extension of the use of the software to a pan-European level should markedly improve diabetes care throughout the community.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Understanding metal bioavailability of plants in soils requires, apart from physiological processes and symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the consideration of the chemical availability in the soil solution (the intensity of the toxic exposure) and the soil's capacity to supply the metal (capacity). In this contribution we report on the time-dependent accumulation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Bioassays with 17 Dutch field soils and two artificially metal-contaminated soils were carried out. Phytotoxicity was observed in soils with pH (pore water) 〈4.8. Metal uptake is shown to be both metal- and soil-dependent and strongly depends on the amount of water the plant transpired and the available concentration in the water. No net accumulation of As, Pb, Ni, and especially Cr was observed in most soils tested. The latter observation is in agreement with findings of Zayed et al. (Planta, 1998 206:293–299), who reported that translocation of Cr from roots to shoots is extremely limited. Internal Cd levels in the plants varied greatly among soils, whereas plant tissue concentrations of Zn and especially Cu appear to be regulated at more or less fixed levels. The 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable metal pool provides the best descriptor for the capacity of the soil to supply Cd and Zn. This enabled the development of models that are suited to predict Zn and Cd uptake by lettuce in both field soils (weathered soils) and soils to which metal salts were added, which is common practice in toxicity testing of chemicals. It is concluded that of all metals included in this study, Cd is the metal of most concern due to bioaccumulation through the soil-plant-animal food chain as Cd is the only metal that might pose human or animal health risks at plant tissue concentrations that are not directly phytotoxic. Finally, application of the models for risk assessment purposes is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of sediment-bound toxicants to aquatic invertebrates may vary due to differences in bioavailability, food quality, or food structure. The equilibrium partitioning theory (EPT) assumes that organic matter content of sediments and not structure of organic matter is relevant for biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. To test this hypothesis effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and size of sediment organic matter particles on the bioaccumulation and growth of the waterlouse Asellus aquaticus were studied in laboratory microcosms. Sediments and A. aquaticus were both sampled in an unpolluted, spring-fed pond. The sampled sediment was divided into two portions. From one portion the size of the organic matter particles was mechanically reduced. One set of each sediment fraction (fine and coarse) was spiked with B(a)P and incubated for 3 weeks resulting in a concentration of 70 mg B(a)P per kg sediment. Bioassays of 32 days were performed in a 2 × 2 factorial design with four replicas of each treatment. The results showed that the growth of A. aquaticus was mainly influenced by the size of organic matter particles. Growth was significantly less (27%) on finer sediments than on coarser sediments. The increase in length was 9–14% lower in the spiked sediments, but this difference was not significant. The reduced growth of A. aquaticus on finer sediments may be due to a change in the availability and/or quality of food together with a change in feeding behavior. The coarse and fine spiked sediment types did not differ significantly with respect to the sediment water partition coefficient, the organic carbon water partition coefficient, and the bioconcentration factor. In contrast, the biota to sediment accumulation factors were significantly 15% higher in the cosms with coarse sediments than in cosms with fine sediments. However, this difference is too small to conflict with EPT.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives: Primary objective – To determine the effect of varying brushing forces and brushing times upon the plaque-removing efficacy of a powered toothbrush. Secondary objective – to determine the optimum combination of brushing force and time for plaque removal.Material and Methods: This randomised, single-blind, 16-cell, cross-over trial compared the efficacy of plaque removal of a powered toothbrush (PTB) used with four brushing forces (75, 150, 225 and 300 g) and over four brushing times (30, 60, 120 and 180 s). Twelve volunteers (18–30 years) were recruited and trained to use the Philips/Jordan Sensiflex 2000 PTB, which was modified so that specified forces and times could be recorded. Each subject was asked to abstain from all oral hygiene procedures for 24 hs prior to each brushing event, to allow plaque accumulation. Plaque was recorded using a modified Quigley & Hein index (PI) at six points per tooth before and after each episode of brushing, and the differences in the means (pre- to postbrushing) were compared. Three-way anova was undertaken to compare differences between plaque-removing efficacy for the 16 combinations of force and time. Subjects, brushing time and brushing force were used as fixed effects within the analysis.Results: All 12 subjects participating completed the 16 combinations of force and time over which plaque removal was assessed. Statistically significant differences in PI reductions were found between different brushing times and forces over all tooth surfaces (p〈0.001). The interaction of varying brushing force and brushing time was significant for full mouth (FM) and interproximal (IP) sites (p〈0.03). No statistical significance was demonstrated for smooth surface (SS) sites, nor was it detected for the interaction of subjects with brushing force or subjects with brushing time (p〉0.05).Conclusion: We conclude that brushing time and brushing force have significant effects upon the level of plaque removal by a PTB, and at 120 s brushing time the improvement in plaque removal with forces in excess of 150 g was negligible.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Personal and ubiquitous computing 4 (2000), S. 245-248 
    ISSN: 1617-4917
    Keywords: Social interaction ; Social networks ; Trust ; Wearable computing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract This paper describes a framework for managing and distributing trust information in a community of mobile and wearable computer users. Trust information in the form of reputations are used to aid users during their social interactions with the rest of the community.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Personal and ubiquitous computing 4 (2000), S. 245-248 
    ISSN: 1617-4917
    Keywords: Key words:Social interaction – Social networks – Trust – Wearable computing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract: This paper describes a framework for managing and distributing trust information in a community of mobile and wearable computer users. Trust information in the form of reputations are used to aid users during their social interactions with the rest of the community.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. ; Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland
    Solid state phenomena Vol. 95-96 (Sept. 2003), p. 35-42 
    ISSN: 1662-9779
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    London : Emerald
    Performance measurement and metrics 3 (2002), S. 140-144 
    ISSN: 1467-8047
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: One of the most important products of the academic endeavour is students' success in their courses of study. However, despite various attempts over the years, it has seldom been possible to demonstrate conclusively that undergraduate library use significantly contributes to student success. Four studies which document improvement in academic performance as outcome measures of library services are discussed. Research conducted at the University of Cape Town is reported, from which it emerges that students of the humanities who do well in their exams, tend to borrow more books from the library than poor students.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Library management 21 (2000), S. 192-197 
    ISSN: 0143-5124
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Contributes to the Global Information Virtual Conference by examining training needs in the higher education sector which will be engendered by the information revolution in the developing world. Focuses on the situation in South Africa, and considers a number of social processes that are driving developments in higher education.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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