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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (634)
  • 1990-1994  (615)
  • 1925-1929  (19)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: STEM ; PEELS ; HAADFI ; Nanolithography ; Super-resolution ; STM ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The Microstructural Physics group at the Cavendish Laboratory is actively involved in a considerable number of research projects which cover a broad range of materials science. In this paper, we describe briefly several such projects, with particular emphasis given to the application of parallel-detection electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) on a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to the analysis of materials such as stainless steels, catalysts, and high temperature superconductors. In addition, we describe a number of related projects that are currently being carried out in the group, particularly those which utilise and develop novel STEM imaging and analytical techniques. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 19 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 19 (1991), S. 269-274 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: minor and major waves ; beat frequeney ; wave propagation velocity ; coiling diameter ; storage effect ; differential behaviour ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: All species of the Drosophila obscura group exhibit within-ejaculate sperm length dimorphism. The present work is a contribution to the understanding of sperm competition through a comparative study of sperm kinetic parameters in four of these species. Videomicrographic observations at 200 frames per second of sperm from males and females, out of the storage organ, prior or after storage were made. Drosophila sperm display both major and minor waves. The former is analysed by measuring coiling diameter (μm) and the latter by recording both beat frequency (s-1) and wave propagation velocity (μm·s-1). Results show that the ‘behaviour’ of short and long spermatozoa noticeably differ: short sperm kinetics remains unaltered after storage while both major and minor waves of long spermatozoa are markedly modified. Thus, evidence is provided here of a sort of “differential activation” which is assumed to result in different survival abilities of short and long sperm within the storage organ of females.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 30 (1991), S. 275-282 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Human testis ; Cell separation ; Elutriation ; Spermatid ; Ultrastructure ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Studying biochemical events in human spermatogenesis requires separated populations of spermatogenic cells. Dissociation of these cells was performed by a Trypsin-DNAse method adapted from the technique used for rodents. Cell separation was performed by centrifugal elutriation. Seven populations were collected, one further purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation, giving nine different cell populations. The efficiency of the cell separation was evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, flow cytometric DNA analysis, and electron microscopy. Five populations were enriched in spermatids: two in round spermatids (87% and 73%), another in round (52%) and elongating (44%) spermatids, another constituted by 80% elongating spermatids, and the last by 90% elongated spermatids. Two of the four remaining populations were enrichied in primary spermatocytes (74% and 54%); another population was the upper part of the Percoll gradient and constituted cytoplasmic lobes and residual bodies (89%); the last population was made up of various cells, with no specific enrichment. Electron microscopic observations revealed good preservation of the separated cells; only the flagella from elongated spermatids were lost. Furthermore, an unusual pattern of nucleoplasm distribution during stages 2-4 of spermatid differentiation was observed and its signification is discussed with regard to the shape of the human spermatozoon.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 56 (1994), S. 331-339 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: 1,25-(OH)2D3 ; 24,25-(OH)2D3 ; matrix vesicles ; nongenomic regulation ; extracellular matrix ; alkaline phosphatase ; phospholipase A2 ; Protein kinase C ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Vitamin D metabolites appear to regulate chondrocytes and osteoblasts via a combination of genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Specificity of the nongenomic response to either 1,25-(OH)2D3 or 24, 25-(OH)2D3 may be conferred by the chemical composition of the target membrane and its fluid mosaic structure, by the presence of specific membrane receptors, or by the interaction with classic Vitamin D receptors. Nongenomic effects have been shown to include changes in membrane fluidity, fatty acid acylation and reacylation, arachidonic acid metabolism and prostaglandin production, calcium ion flux, and protein kinaase C activity. Chondrocytes metabolize 25-(OH)D3 to 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3; production of these metabolites is regulated by both growth factors and hormones and is dependent on the state of cell maturation. 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 may interact directly with extracellular matix vesicles to regulate their function in the matrix, including protease activity, resulting in matrix modefication and calcification. Isolated matrix vesicles, produced by growth zone chondrocytes, can activate latent transforming growth factor-β when incubated with exogenous 1,25-(OH)2D3. These observations suggest that nongenomic regulation of martix vesicle structure and function may be a mechanism by which mesenchymal cells, like osteoblasts and chndrocytes, may modulate events in the extracellular matrix at sites distant from the cell surace.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 15 (1993), S. 695-697 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The male gametes of most organisms lack cytoplasm. Consequently, most cytoplasmic genetic elements are maternally inherited: they cannot be transmitted patrilinnearly. The evolutionary interests of cytoplasmic elements therefore lie in transmission through the female. These elements may thus be in evolutionary conflict with nuclear genes which are transmitted by both sexes. This conflict is manifested in observations of cytoplasmically induced biased sex-ratios. Some cytoplasmic genes avoid this fate by biasing the primary sex ratio towards females, or by inducing parthenogenesis. Others kill male hosts, and either achieve transmission via dispersal, or benefit their clonal relatives in the dead male's female siblings. Still others cause the failure of zygotes resulting from pairings between males carrying specific microbes and females lacking them, causing an increase in the microbes through the sterilisation of non-bearing females. Many, but not all, of these ‘ultra-selfish’ microbes are closely related. Investigations of the significance of their phylogenetic affinities, or lack of them, their adaptability in terms of the methods by which they avoid, or ameliorate, the adverse effects of being in male hosts, and their importance as selective agents in the evolution of invertebrate sex determination systems, provide fertile spheres for future research.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 153 (1992), S. 103-111 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) proliferate in a serum-free defined growth medium in the absence of epidermal growth factor (Li and Shipley, 1991). Amphiregulin (AR) is a heparin-regulated, EGF-like growth factor. Our observation that one strain of HMECs produce AR mRNA (Cook et al., 1991a) stimulated us to determine whether AR expression was a common phenomenon in HMECs and whether AR could act as an autocrin growth factor to support the EGF-independent growth of these cells. In this study, we detected high levels of AR expression in four separate HMEC strains while one immortal mammary cell line (HBL-100) and six mammary tumor-derived cell lines had low to undetectable levels of AR. The EGF-indendent growth of HMECs was blocked by the addition of heparin or a monoclonal anti-RGF receptors antibody to the culture medium, implication AR as an autocrine growth mediator. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that medium conditioned by HMECs contains secreted AR protein. A mammary tumor-derived cell line, Hs578T, which proliferates in an EGF-independent manner, does not express detectable levels of AR and is not growth inhibited by heparin. Examination of the same cell types for expression of transforming growth factor type-alpha (TGF-α) mRNA revealed coordinate expression of AR and TGF-α in these cells. These data suggest that both AR and TGF-α mRNA are produced in much greater abundance by normal HMECs than in tumor-derived cells in culture, and that AR is an important autostimulatory factor for the growth of normal HMECs. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 156 (1993), S. 462-468 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the present study, we have sought to determine whether a given signal transduction pathway can have diverse effects on subpopulations of cells of a lineage depending upon the stage of differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we selected the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal transduction pathway because of its recognized importance in mediating the actions of many hormones, e.g., parathyroid hormone which acts on the bone-forming cells, the osteoblasts. Subpopulations of human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells with low (LSaOS) and high (HSaOS) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content were chosen as model systems for preosteoblasts (pre-OB) and osteoblasts (OB), respectively. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) treatment of serum free cultures produced a differential effect on the proliferation of LSaOS cells (40 ± 5% of control at 1 mM DBcAMP, P 〈 0.001) compared with HSaOS cells (no statistically significant effect). The finding supports the hypothesis. Next, we sought evidence for mediation, at least in part, by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II regulatory system. We report that the basal expression of IGF-II, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and IGFBP-4 was higher in LSaOS cells than in HSaOS cells with the opposite true for type I IGF receptor. DBcAMP treatment of LSaOS cells decreased IGF-II and IGFBP-3 but increased IGFBP-4 and type I IGF receptor; no effect was observed for the type II IGF receptors. DBcAMP treatment of HSaOS cells had no detectable effect on IGF-II; IGFBP-3, or type I and type II IGF receptor expression; only IGFBP-4 expression increased with DBcAMP. These observations suggest that the differential regulation of cell proliferation by the cAMP signal transduction pathway may be mediated, at least in part, by the IGF-II regulatory system. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 236 (1993), S. 169-175 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 26 (1993), S. 49-65 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: fatty acid ; MHC ; MLC ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The fatty acid 12(S)-HETE may be a new second messenger capable of activating PKC. In tumor cells 12(S)-HETE stimulates cytoskeleton-dependent cellular responses such as adhesion and spreading. Analysis of 12(S)-HETE effects on B16a melanoma cell cytoskeleton revealed reversible rearrangement of microtubules, microfilaments, the actin-binding proteins, vinculin, myosin heavy (MHC) and light chains (MLC), as well as bundling of vimentin intermediate filaments. The alterations in microfilaments and intermediate filaments occurred very rapidly, i.e., 5 min after exposure of tumor cells to 12(S)-HETE. The 12(S)-HETE-induced cytoskeletal alterations were accompanied by centrifugal organelle-translocation. Interestingly, MLC exhibited clear association with the cytoplasmic organelles. Biochemical analysis of the 12(S)-HETE effect indicated a PKC-mediated reversible hyperphosphorylation of MLC, vimentin, and a 130 kD cytoskeletal-associated protein. Optimal effects were obtained after 5 min treatment with 12(S)-HETE at 0.1 μM concentration. 12(S)-HETE pretreatment induced tumor cell spreading on a fibronectin matrix which required the intactness of all three major cytoskeletal components. The spreading process was dependent upon the activity of PKC. Our data suggest that 12(S)-HETE is a physiological stimulant of PKC. Further, it induces rearrangement of the cytoskeleton of tumor cells in interphase resulting in the stimulation of cytoskeleton-dependent cell activity such as spreading. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 25 (1990), S. 186-194 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Intracellular calcium ; Intracellular pH ; Mitochondira ; Epididymal sperm ; Bovine ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: This study was undertaken to determine the role of calcium ion, a key regulator of the intensity and form of motility in mature demembranated sperm, in the development of motility during passage through the bovine epididymis. Cellular calcium levels in bovine caput and cauda epididymal spermatozoa were measured with three different techniques. 45Ca2+ uptake measurements revealed that net calcium uptake and Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange in caput spermatozoa were about 2 to 3 times higher than in caudal spermatozoa. Intracellular free calcium determination with the calcium fluorophore Fura 2 showed that the levels were 6 times higher in caput spermatozoa. The values for caput and caudal sperm were 875±55 nM (n = 15) and 155±6 nM (n = 24), respectively. Total cellular calcium levels quantitated by atomic absorption were 626±30 (n = 48) and 304±19 (n = 46) ng/108 sperm in caput and caudal epididymal sperm, respectively. At least one of the reasons for the high calcium content of caput epididymal sperm is the result of a higher rate and extent of mitochondrial calcium accumulation in caput compared to caudal sperm. Mitochondrial calcium uptake rates measured in digitonin permeabilized cells revealed uptake rates 2- to 3-fold higher in caput compared to caudal sperm. However, mitochondrial calcium efflux rates were identical in caput and caudal epididymal sperm. The efflux rates in both cell types were unaffected by external sodium levels but were found to be proportional to pH. Alkalinization or acidification of internal pH of intact sperm resulted in a corresponding lowering or elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium levels. We propose that external calcium has access to sperm only via the mitochondria (Vijayaraghavan and Hoskins: Cell Calcium 10:241-253, 1989) and that this mitochondrial calcium is subsequently redistributed into the cytoplasmic space as a function of the internal pH. We document for the first time that changes in mitochondrial calcium handling properties are important in epididymal sperm maturation and suggest that the acquisition of sperm motility in the epididymis could be related to these changes in sperm calcium handling properties.
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