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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Wien ; Köln ; Weimar : Böhlau
    Part of " Studien zu Politik und Verwaltung"
    Person(s): Kraus, Herbert
    Keywords: Österreich ; Finanzwirtschaft ; Finanzkontrolle ; Haushaltskontrolle ; Finanzkontrolle ; Reform ; Finance, Public Accounting ; Finance, Public Auditing ; Österreich ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Konferenzschrift 1991 ; Finanzkontrolle ; Haushaltskontrolle ; Österreich ; Finanzkontrolle ; Reform
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: VI, 167 S.
    ISBN: 3205055306
    Series Statement: Studien zu Politik und Verwaltung 41
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Computational intelligence 8 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Consider the construction of an expert system by encoding the knowledge of different experts. Suppose the knowledge provided by each expert is encoded into a knowledge base. Then the process of combining the knowledge of these different experts is an important and nontrivial problem. We study this problem here when the expert systems are considered to be first-order theories. We present techniques for resolving inconsistencies in such knowledge bases. We also provide algorithms for implementing these techniques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 19 (1991), S. 129-137 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Senescence ; Plasmid ; Neurospora ; Mitochondria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Several field-collected strains of Neurospora crassa from the vicinity or Aarey, Bombay, India, are prone to precocious senescence and death. Analysis of one strain, Aarely-1e, demonstrated that the genetic determinants for the predisposition to senescence are maternally inherited. The senescence-prone strains contain a 7-kb, linear, mitochondrial DNA plasmid, maranhar, which is not present in long-lived isolates from the same geographical location. The maranhar plasmid has inverted terminal repeats with protein covalently bound at the 5′ termini. Molecular hybridization experiments have demonstrated no substantial DNA sequence homology between the plasmid and the normal mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear genomes of long-lived strains of N. crassa. Integrated maranhar sequences were detected in the mtDNAs of two cultures derived from Aarey-1e, and mtDNAs with the insertion sequences accumulated during subculturing. Nucleotide sequence analysis of cloned fragments of the two insertion sequences demonstrates that that they are flanked by long inverted repeats of mtDNA. The senescence syndrome of the maranhar strains, and the mode of integration of the plasmid, are reminiscent of those seen in the kalilo strains of N. intermedia. Nonetheless, there is no detectable nucleotide sequence homology between the maranhar and kalilo plasmids.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 17 (1990), S. 139-145 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Neurospora ; Senescence ; Plasmids ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Heterokaryons
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Heterokaryotic transmission is one of the major techniques for the study of cytoplasmic inheritance and here we have applied it to the senescence-determining plasmids kalilo (Hawaiian) and maranhar (Indian). We have shown that kalilo-based senescence is effectively transmitted by cytoplasmic contact, both in N. crassa and in N. intermedia. In the first place, the heterokaryons themselves are senescent, confirming the suppressivity of the senescence phenotype in mixtures of normal and senescent cytoplasms. Second, senescence is found in new nuclear associations, as shown by analysis of conidial isolates and meiocytes stemming from the heterokaryons. In addition, the free plasmid AR-kalDNA, and its form that is inserted into mtDNA, (mtIS-kalDNA), are both transmitted to new nuclear associations. In a transient fusion between senescent N. intermedia and nonsenescent N. crassa cells, AR-kalDNA was transmitted to N. crassa and mtIS-kalDNA was transmitted to N. crassa mtDNA. A cryptic mitochondrial plasmid, not associated with senescence, was also transmitted very efficiently to N. crassa mitochondria. In mixed kalilo/maranhar fusions, both plasmids coexisted, approximately equally, in the heterokaryons themselves, and in conidial isolates. However, in sexual derivatives, AR-marDNA was in an excess and AR-kalDNA was sometimes absent. The efficient heterokaryotic transmission of these elements suggests that this is one of their natural modes of spread in populations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 88 (1992), S. 705-706 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The gene causing adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has recently been cloned. Three intragenic polymorphisms were reported to be detectable by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Here, we describe an assay using polymerase-chain-reaction-based amplification and subsequent enzymatic digestion of genomic sequences to identify polymorphic sites at nucleotide positions 1458 and 5037 of the APC gene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Parkinson's disease ; Bromocriptine ; L-Dopa/benserazide ; early combination therapy ; long-term ; therapy ; mortality ; cardioprotection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary L-Dopa supplemented by a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor is considered the most potent therapeutic regimen prolonging active life in Parkinsonian patients. The long-term benefit of therapy is limited by adverse effects, such as dyskinesia and on-off phenomena, which can be mitigated by the concomitant administration of dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine. In order to quantify the beneficial impact of early combination therapy, a controlled clinical trial (PRADO:PRA vi-del1 +DOpa) in patients with early Parkinson's disease was carried out, whereby L-Dopa monotherapy (in a fixed combination with benserazide (DoBe) was being compared with the same combination plus bromocriptine (DoBeBro). Patients were recruited and treated by 101 practising neurologists in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Hungary. 'Twenty seven clinical university centers cross-checked the patients at regular intervals. The trial started with 3 months of DoBe monotherapy (median dose of 375 mg L-Dopa for both randomized groups) followed by gradual substitution of DoBe by bromocriptine over 3 months in one of the groups (250 mg L-Dopa/10 mg bromocriptine). The target medication was maintained from study months 6 to 54. Parkinsonian symptoms were classified according to the Webster rating scale, the Hoehn and Yahr scale and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Adverse events and life status were checked at regular intervals. Special emphasis was given to motor performance tests. 587 patients (302 in the DoBe group and 285 in the DoBeBro group) were available for intention-to-treat analysis. Both groups were homogeneous at baseline in all observed parameters. DoBe and DoBeBro proved equi-effective in terms of antiparkinsonian activity after the substitution phase (P II) had been completed. In September 1991, after a median observation period on target medication of 38.4 months in the DoBe group and 40.1 months in the DoBeBro group, 18 versus 8 deaths had been registered. The Logrank test as well as analysis using the Cox model, both adjusted for age and sex, showedP-values of 0.018 and 0.021, respectively. The mortality risk associated with L-Dopa therapy was reduced by more than 50 % by its combination with bromocriptine. The study was terminated due to this difference in mortality. The causes of death were classified by the treating physicians and consultants. At the time of study termination 152 patients in the DoBe group and 121 in the DoBeBro group had already discontinued study medication. Of those further 26 patients had died by the date of the final evaluation, 15 on DoBe and 11 on DoBeBro. The results imply that combination therapy with bromocriptine should be preferred over L-Dopa monotherapy from the very beginning.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 88 (1991), S. 167-174 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have characterised by cytogenetic and molecular analysis a de novo tandem duplication of chromosome 21. High resolution chromosome examination of lymphocytes revealed the following karyotype in 90% of the cells: 46,XY,dir dup (21)(pter→q22.300::q11.205 →qter). Of these cells, 10% showed a normal karyotype. Gene dosage of chromosome 21 sequences by a slot blot method indicated that the duplication extends from D21S16 to D21S55. In situ hybridization with probes close to the borders of the duplicated segment confirmed the gene dosage data and gave results consistent with a true tandem duplication of chromosome 21. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the patient's DNA showed an abnormal restriction band common to D21S55 and D21S16, confirming that the junction point between the two homologous parts of the tandem chromosome brings these two sequences into proximity. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that the abnormal chromosome was maternal in origin and that the rearrangement of chromosome 21 could not have occurred at a post-zygotic stage of development but resulted from a recombination event during maternal gametogenesis. The possible mechanisms of formation of the abnormal chromosome are discussed, as is the presence of cells with normal chromosomes 21, in the patient.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 91 (1993), S. 317-320 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chromosomal mosaicism in chorionic villus samples (CVS) may arise from different sources, such as clonal diversity within the chorionic tissue or contamination with maternal cells. To determine the origin of karyotyped cells, we compared the immunocytochemical features of mitotic cells in CVS long-term cultures with histological sections of their tissue of origin, i.e. chorionic villi. Immunolabelling of intermediate filaments specific for epithelial cells (cytokeratin) and mesenchymal cells (vimentin) established that mitoses yielded from CVS long-term cultures indeed stem from independently growing clones derived from both the epithelial and mesenchymal parts of the chorionic villi. Thus, mosaicism in CVS cultures may reflect true genetic heterogeneity within the biopsy. However, epithelial chorionic cells undergo in vitro metaplasia leading to co-expression of cytokeratins and vimentin. Fetal-specific immune markers (β-HCG and SP1-glycoprotein) are not reliably expressed in CVS cell culture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Immunogenetics 31 (1990), S. 271-274 
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Colonoscopy ; Complications ; Bleeding ; Perforation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This is a report on 126 prospectively registered and controlled complications in 29,695 consecutive endoscopic procedures of the lower gastrointestinal tract. The overall complication rate is 0.4%. All endoscopic procedures were performed in our institution; no referrals “from other hospitals” are included. The therapy and prognosis of occurring complications are described. Especially after therapeutic endoscopy—above all, after polypectomy—the complication rate of 0.83% is not negligible. A serious aspect is the average interval of 30 h from endoscopically caused complication to the onset of symptoms. Bleeding could be managed conservatively in 76% of cases. Nevertheless perforation and transmural burn injuries required surgical intervention in 78% of cases. The authors conclude that in the case of transmural burn an attempt at “active conservative treatment” is justified if the patient is under close surgical control, if the symptoms improve, and if there is a possibility of immediate surgery.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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