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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    The @journal of organic chemistry 56 (1991), S. 7340-7341 
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 115 (1993), S. 2764-2774 
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Langmuir 11 (1995), S. 2329-2333 
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Organometallics 6 (1987), S. 1427-1432 
    ISSN: 1520-6041
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Organometallics 7 (1988), S. 246-246 
    ISSN: 1520-6041
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2014-02-24
    Description: Guanosine, a guanine-based purine, is an extracellular signaling molecule that is released from astrocytes and shows neuroprotective effects in several in vivo and in vitro studies. Our group recently showed that guanosine presents antioxidant properties in C6 astroglial cells. The heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) signaling pathway is associated with protection against oxidative stress. Azide, an inhibitor of the respiratory chain, is frequently used in experimental models to induce oxidative and nitrosative stress. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of guanosine on azide-induced oxidative damage in C6 astroglial cells. Azide treatment of these cells resulted in several detrimental effects, including induction of cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction, increased levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, iNOS expression and NADPH oxidase, decreased glutamate uptake and EAAC1 glutamate transporter expression, decreased glutathione (GSH) levels, and decreased activities of glutamine synthetase (GS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The treatment also increased NFκB activation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. Guanosine strongly prevented these effects, protecting glial cells against azide-induced cytotoxicity and modulating glial, oxidative and inflammatory responses through the activation of the HO1 pathway. These observations reinforce and support the role of guanosine as an antioxidant molecule against oxidative damage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2016-10-26
    Description: Physiological network functioning in the hippocampus is dependent on a balance between glutamatergic cell excitability and the activity of diverse local circuit neurons that release the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Tuners of neuronal communication such as adenosine, an endogenous modulator of synapses, control hippocampal network operations by regulating excitability. Evidence has been recently accumulating on the influence of adenosine on different aspects of GABAergic transmission to shape hippocampal function. This review addresses how adenosine, through its high-affinity A 1 (A 1 R) and A 2A receptors (A 2 A R), interferes with different GABA-mediated forms of inhibition in the hippocampus to regulate neuronal excitability. Adenosine-mediated modulation of phasic/tonic inhibitory transmission, of GABA transport mechanisms and its interference with other modulatory systems are discussed together with the putative implications for neuronal function in physiological and pathological conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2017-07-22
    Description: It is believed that climate change will influence most of interactions that sustain life on Earth. Among these, the recruitment exerted by plants in their roots vicinity can change, leading to differential assemblages of microbiomes in the rhizosphere. We approached this issue analyzing the variations in the composition of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of sugarcane cultivated under two concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 (350 or 700 ppm). In addition to the analysis of bacterial community, the use of DNA-SIP allowed the comparison of bacterial groups assimilating roots exudates (based on 13 C-labeled DNA) in both conditions, in a period of 8 days after the CO 2 pulse. The separation of 13 C-DNA indicated the low but increasing frequency of labeling in the rhizosphere, as averages of 0.6, 2.4 and 5.0% of total DNA was labeled after 2, 4 and 8 days after the 13 CO 2 pulse, respectively. Based on large-scale sequencing of the V6 region in the gene 16S rRNA, we found an increase in the bacterial diversity in the 13 C-DNA along the sampling period. We also describe the occurrence of distinct bacterial groups assimilating roots exudates from sugarcane cultivated under each CO 2 concentration. Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria and Clostridia showed high affinity for the C-sources released by sugarcane under 350 ppm of CO 2 , while under elevated concentration of CO 2 , the assimilation of roots exudates was prevalently made by members of Bacilli and Betaproteobacteria. The communities became more similar along time (4 and 8 days after CO 2 pulse), in both concentrations of CO 2 , electing Actinobacteria, Sphingobacteriia and Alphaproteobacteria as the major cross-feeders on sugarcane exudates. In summary, we described the bacterial groups with higher affinity to assimilate roots exudates in the rhizosphere of sugarcane, and also demonstrated that the rhizosphere community can be differentially assembled in a future scenario with increased contents of CO 2 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 9
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2017-05-15
    Description: Seasonality causes fluctuations in resource availability, affecting the presence and abundance of animal species. The impacts of these oscillations on wildlife populations can be exacerbated by habitat fragmentation. We assessed differences in bat species abundance between the wet and dry season in a fragmented landscape in the Central Amazon characterized by primary forest fragments embedded in a secondary forest matrix. We also evaluated whether the relative importance of local vegetation structure versus landscape characteristics (composition and configuration) in shaping bat abundance patterns varied between seasons. Our working hypotheses were that abundance responses are species as well as season specific, and that in the wet season, local vegetation structure is a stronger determinant of bat abundance than landscape-scale attributes. Generalized linear mixed-effects models in combination with hierarchical partitioning revealed that relationships between species abundances and local vegetation structure and landscape characteristics were both season specific and scale dependent. Overall, landscape characteristics were more important than local vegetation characteristics, suggesting that landscape structure is likely to play an even more important role in landscapes with higher fragment-matrix contrast. Responses varied between frugivores and animalivores. In the dry season, frugivores responded more to compositional metrics, whereas during the wet season, local and configurational metrics were more important. Animalivores showed similar patterns in both seasons, responding to the same group of metrics in both seasons. Differences in responses likely reflect seasonal differences in the phenology of flowering and fruiting between primary and secondary forests, which affected the foraging behavior and habitat use of bats. Management actions should encompass multiscale approaches to account for the idiosyncratic responses of species to seasonal variation in resource abundance and consequently to local and landscape scale attributes. Fragmentation is one of the most important drivers of global biodiversity loss. In this article we study the effects of seasonality on the responses of Neotropical bats to local- and landscape-scale attributes in a fragmented landscape.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 10
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Morphological variation is unevenly distributed within the mammalian skull; some of its parts have diversified more than others. It is commonly thought that this pattern of variation is mainly the result of the structural organization of the skull, as defined by the pattern and magnitude of trait covariation. Patterns of trait covariation can facilitate morphological diversification if they are aligned in the direction of selection, or these patterns can constrain diversification if oriented in a different direction. Within this theoretical framework, it is thought that more variable parts possess patterns of trait covariation that made them more capable of evolutionary change, that is, are more labile. However, differences in the degree of morphological variation among skull traits could arise despite variation in trait lability if, for example, some traits have evolved at a different rate and/or undergone stabilizing selection. Here, we test these hypotheses in the mammalian skull using 2D geometric morphometrics to quantify skull shape and estimating constraint, rates of evolution, and lability. Contrary to the expectations, more variable parts of the skull across mammalian species are less capable of evolutionary change than are less variable skull parts. Our results suggest that patterns of morphological variation in the skull could result from differences in rate of evolution and stabilizing selection. Are more diverse parts of the mammalian skull more labile? Contrary to the expectations, we provide evidence that more variable parts of the skull are less capable of evolutionary change than are less variable skull parts. Our results suggest that patterns of morphological variation in the skull could result from differences in rate of evolution and stabilizing selection.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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