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  • ddc:330  (24)
  • Amsterdam: Elsevier  (24)
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  • 1
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Three billion people cook their food on biomass-fueled fires. This practice contributes to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions from cooking, however, cookstoves made from modern materials and distributed through energy-intensive supply chains have higher embodied CO2-equivalent than traditional cookstoves. No studies exist examining whether lifetime emissions savings from fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves offset embodied emissions, and if so, by what margin. This paper is a complete life cycle inventory of 'The Berkeley-Darfur Stove,' disseminated in Sudan by the non-profit Potential Energy. We estimate the embodied CO2-equivalent in the cookstove associated with materials, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life is 17kg of CO2-equivalent. Assuming a mix of 55% non-renewable biomass and 45% renewable biomass, five years of service, and a conservative 35% reduction in fuel use relative to a three-stone fire, the cookstove will offset 7.5 tonnes of CO2-equivalent. A one-to-one replacement of a three-stone fire with the cookstove will save roughly 440 times more CO2-equivalent than it 'costs' to create and distribute. Over its five-year life, we estimate the total use-phase emissions of the cookstove to be 13.5 tonnes CO2-equivalent, and the use-phase accounts for 99.9% of cookstove life cycle emissions. The dominance of use-phase emissions illuminate two important insights: (1) without a rigorous program to monitor use-phase emissions, an accurate estimate of life cycle emissions from biomass cookstoves is not possible, and (2) improving a cookstove's avoided emissions relies almost exclusively on reducing use-phase emissions even if use-phase reductions come at the cost of substantially increased non-use-phase emissions.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Based on brother correlations in permanent earnings for different groups of second generation immigrants, the findings in this paper indicate that cultural background is not a major determinant of the level of intergenerational economic mobility.
    Description: This is the author's version of a work that was accepted for publication in Economics Letters. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Economics Letters 114(2012), 3, pp. 335-337 and is online available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2011.11.007.
    Keywords: J62 ; ddc:330 ; Intergenerational mobility ; Sibling correlations ; Family background ; Equality of opportunities ; Einkommen ; Soziale Mobilität ; Migranten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: This paper presents effect of thermo-physical properties of soil on performance of an Earth Air Tunnel Heat Exchanger (EATHE). The analysis has been carried out using a validated three-dimensional, transient numerical model for three different types of soil. The governing equations, based on the k-ε model and energy equation were used to describe the turbulence and heat transfer phenomena, are solved by using finite volume method. Comparisons were made in terms of temperature drop, heat transfer rate and COP of the EATHE system by operating it continuously for 12 h duration. The study reveals that each soil exhibits different rate of heat dissipation and thermal saturation over a period of continuous operation, which adversely affects the performance of EATHE. Dissipation of heat from the EATHE pipes to its surrounding soil and subsequently to the outer subsoil region is mainly found to be depending upon the thermal conductivity of soil; even of their thermal diffusivity is of different order.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Analysis of water use for power generation has, in the past, focused on large geographical regions and time scales. Attempting to refine this analysis on the time and spatial scales could help to further understand the complex relationships involved in the energy-water nexus, specifically, the water required to generate power. Water factors for different types of plants and cooling systems are used from literature in combination with power generation data for different balancing authorities to model water use as a function of time based on the fuel mix and power generated for that region. This model is designed to increase public awareness of the interrelation between the energy consumed and water use that can be taken into account when making decisions about electrical energy use. These results confirm that areas with higher renewable energy penetration use less water per unit of power generated than those with little or no renewable technologies in the area, but this effect is heavily dependent on the distribution of the types of renewable and conventional generation used.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Generation mix ; Power generation ; Thermoelectric power ; Water conservation ; Water use
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Combined heat and power (CHP) production in buildings is one of the mitigation options available for achieving a considerable decrease in GHG emissions. Micro-CHP (mCHP) fuel cells are capable of cogenerating electricity and heat very efficiently on a decentralised basis. Although they offer clear environmental benefits and have the potential to create a systemic change in energy provision, the diffusion of mCHP fuel cells is rather slow. There are numerous potential drivers for the successful diffusion of fuel cell cogeneration units, but key economic actors are often unaware of them. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of barriers, drivers and business opportunities surrounding micro-CHP fuel-cell units (up to 5 kWel) in the German building market. Business opportunities have been identified based not only on quantitative data for drivers and barriers, but also on discussions with relevant stakeholders such as housing associations, which are key institutional demand-side actors. These business opportunities include fuel cell contracting as well as the development of a large lighthouse project to demonstrate the climate-neutral, efficient use of fuel cells in the residential building sector. The next step could involve the examination and development of more detailed options and business models. The approach and methods used in the survey may be applied on a larger scale and in other sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Fuel cells ; Innovation barriers ; Low-carbon buildings ; Market survey
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: Despite the high likelihood of infection and substantial yield losses from trunk diseases, many California practitioners wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, and application of pruning-wound protectants) until after disease symptoms appear in the vineyard at around 10 years old. We evaluate net benefits from adoption of these practices before symptoms appear in young Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards and after they become apparent in mature vineyards to identify economic hurdles to early adoption. We simulate winegrape production in select counties of California and find widespread benefits from early adoption, increasing vineyard profitable lifespans, in some cases, by close to 50%. However, hurdles may result from uncertainty about the cost and returns from adoption, labor constraints, long time lags in benefits from early adoption, growers' perceived probabilities of infection, and their discount rate. Development of extension resources communicating benefits and potential hurdles to growers likely reduces uncertainty, increasing early adoption. Improvements in efficacy of preventative practices, perhaps by detecting when pathogen spores are released into the vineyard, will increase early adoption. Lastly, practice cost reductions will increase early adoption too, especially when the time it takes for adoption to payoff and infection uncertainty are influential in adoption decisions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Early adoption ; Grapevine trunk diseases ; Plant-disease management ; Preventative practices
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 7
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: The effect of wine ratings on pricing has been a question for wine consumers for some time. Ultimately, wine preference, and thus how one judges a wine, is a subjective endeavor. Wine professionals have long rated wines and those published ratings have some effect on consumer sales. Previously, wine studies have found that there is a connection between rating and price. This study looks to try to verify that connection through insuring that best fit model development is used. For the first time in wine research, the authors have utilized Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare different models and more dynamic hypothesis testing to explore the relationship between ratings and prices of wines. In the end, it was confirmed that there is a link, and the use of AIC also helped to not only confirm previous findings, but also to identify a new concern in wine ratings.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Akaike Information Criteria ; Model testing ; Wine ; Wine rating
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 8
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: This study evaluates performance of passive thermal management system of high power Li-ion batteries in a cold environment. Two different phase change materials (PCM) consisting of pure paraffin and paraffin-graphite composites are considered and compared with a battery module in absence of PCM material. Battery modules are partially discharged for a period and then subjected to different cold time periods representing short and long vehicle stops during winter. Battery performance parameters such as capacity, power, and temperature along with thermophysical properties of each module are recorded, calculated, and compared for different scenarios. Thermal management systems moderate temperature rise during discharge and slow the temperature loss during cold stops but also slow the temperature rise after cold stops. Results show that after a short (10 min) cold stop the paraffin wax offers no advantage by keeping the module warm. Both paraffin and no PCM modules had comparable energy values. On the other hand, during long (2 hours) cold stops a significant detriment (15% reduced energy vs 6% reduced energy) was observed in PCM modules by delaying battery warm up when compared to modules with no PCM. Commercial PCM modules with graphite/paraffin composites performed in-between PCM and no PCM modules (9% reduced energy) after long cold soaks but had no advantage for short cold soaks (2.5% energy reduction) due to higher heat dissipation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Lithium-ion battery ; Phase change material ; Thermal management system
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: Open Source Software (OSS) begins to be considered the new paradigm of the software distribution. Nevertheless, the recent appearance of OSS prevents to know its real impact at the present time in the social and organizational scopes. Due to this obstacle, the authors have defined a Delphi study for reaching a scenario about the diffusion of OSS in 2010, according to the main applications, geographic areas and economic sectors. Complementarily, the authors have researched the critical success factors and the main barriers for the diffusion and adoption of OSS.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; OSS ; forecasting ; Delphi method ; critical success factors ; Diffusion
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: As a mass communication medium, the Internet has lately developed from a double perspective: on the one hand as a distribution channel and on the other as a communication channel. From this second perspective, the Web allows consumers an unlimited access to information and a greater control of their contact with advertising, because they can choose what commercial content they wish to see, when they receptive to it and whether they want to receive it completely. In this sense, the measurement of attitude to Internet advertising and its assessment by Internet users has become an essential element for the development of more profitable and efficient business communication strategies. This paper analyses the influence of advertising types on advertising assessment, as well as the effect of Internet users' previous awareness of the different advertising formats on their attitude to Internet advertising.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Web advertising ; knowledge ; advertising effectiveness
    Language: Spanish
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