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  • Other Sources  (45)
  • Amsterdam: Elsevier  (24)
  • Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
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  • Other Sources  (45)
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  • 1
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Three billion people cook their food on biomass-fueled fires. This practice contributes to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions from cooking, however, cookstoves made from modern materials and distributed through energy-intensive supply chains have higher embodied CO2-equivalent than traditional cookstoves. No studies exist examining whether lifetime emissions savings from fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves offset embodied emissions, and if so, by what margin. This paper is a complete life cycle inventory of 'The Berkeley-Darfur Stove,' disseminated in Sudan by the non-profit Potential Energy. We estimate the embodied CO2-equivalent in the cookstove associated with materials, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life is 17kg of CO2-equivalent. Assuming a mix of 55% non-renewable biomass and 45% renewable biomass, five years of service, and a conservative 35% reduction in fuel use relative to a three-stone fire, the cookstove will offset 7.5 tonnes of CO2-equivalent. A one-to-one replacement of a three-stone fire with the cookstove will save roughly 440 times more CO2-equivalent than it 'costs' to create and distribute. Over its five-year life, we estimate the total use-phase emissions of the cookstove to be 13.5 tonnes CO2-equivalent, and the use-phase accounts for 99.9% of cookstove life cycle emissions. The dominance of use-phase emissions illuminate two important insights: (1) without a rigorous program to monitor use-phase emissions, an accurate estimate of life cycle emissions from biomass cookstoves is not possible, and (2) improving a cookstove's avoided emissions relies almost exclusively on reducing use-phase emissions even if use-phase reductions come at the cost of substantially increased non-use-phase emissions.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2019-10-31
    Description: This paper examines the effect of incentives on the performance of darts players. We analyze four data sets comprising a total of 123,402 darts matches of professional, amateur, and youth players. The game of darts offers an attractive natural research setting, because performance can be observed at the individual level and without the obscuring effects of risk considerations and the behavior of others. We find that amateur and youth players perform better under moderately higher incentives, but choke when the incentives are really high. Professional players similarly display better performance under higher incentives, but appear less susceptible of choking. These results speak to a growing literature on the limits of increasing incentives as a recipe for better performance.
    Keywords: D01 ; D91 ; Z20 ; ddc:330 ; incentives ; choking under pressure ; performance ; darts
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: The effect of wine ratings on pricing has been a question for wine consumers for some time. Ultimately, wine preference, and thus how one judges a wine, is a subjective endeavor. Wine professionals have long rated wines and those published ratings have some effect on consumer sales. Previously, wine studies have found that there is a connection between rating and price. This study looks to try to verify that connection through insuring that best fit model development is used. For the first time in wine research, the authors have utilized Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare different models and more dynamic hypothesis testing to explore the relationship between ratings and prices of wines. In the end, it was confirmed that there is a link, and the use of AIC also helped to not only confirm previous findings, but also to identify a new concern in wine ratings.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Akaike Information Criteria ; Model testing ; Wine ; Wine rating
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: Despite the high likelihood of infection and substantial yield losses from trunk diseases, many California practitioners wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, and application of pruning-wound protectants) until after disease symptoms appear in the vineyard at around 10 years old. We evaluate net benefits from adoption of these practices before symptoms appear in young Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards and after they become apparent in mature vineyards to identify economic hurdles to early adoption. We simulate winegrape production in select counties of California and find widespread benefits from early adoption, increasing vineyard profitable lifespans, in some cases, by close to 50%. However, hurdles may result from uncertainty about the cost and returns from adoption, labor constraints, long time lags in benefits from early adoption, growers' perceived probabilities of infection, and their discount rate. Development of extension resources communicating benefits and potential hurdles to growers likely reduces uncertainty, increasing early adoption. Improvements in efficacy of preventative practices, perhaps by detecting when pathogen spores are released into the vineyard, will increase early adoption. Lastly, practice cost reductions will increase early adoption too, especially when the time it takes for adoption to payoff and infection uncertainty are influential in adoption decisions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Early adoption ; Grapevine trunk diseases ; Plant-disease management ; Preventative practices
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: We apply the theory of inequality in opportunity to measure inequity in mortality. Ourempirical work is based on a rich dataset for the Netherlands (1998-2007), linking informationabout mortality, health events and lifestyles. We show that distinguishing between differentchannels via which mortality is affected is necessary to test the sensitivity of the results withrespect to different normative positions. Moreover, our model allows for a comparison of theinequity in simulated counterfactual situations, including an evaluation of policy measures.We explicitly make a distinction between inequity in mortality risks and inequity in mortalityoutcomes. The treatment of this difference - “luck”- has a crucial in‡uence on the results.
    Keywords: D63 ; I12 ; I14 ; ddc:330 ; equity ; equality of opportunities ; mortality ; lifestyles ; Sterblichkeit ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Lifestyle ; Niederlande
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: This paper investigates the age-dependency of participation andunemployment by integrating job search with intertemporal optimizing behaviorof finitely-lived households. We find that search frictions and tax ratesdistort the decisions of older workers to a much larger extent than that ofyoung workers. This finding provides an explanation of the observed fall ofparticipation rates of elder workers as a result of the post-war increase intax rates and replacement rates. We show that the age pattern of searchunemployment does not match observed unemployment and we propose a new conceptof 'voluntary' unemployment that agrees well with observations.
    Keywords: J64 ; D91 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; search frictions ; labor supply ; life cycle ; unemployment ; retirement. ; Arbeitsangebot ; Arbeitsuche ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Ältere Arbeitskräfte
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: This study explores global inequality in health status, and decomposes it into within- andbetween-country inequality. We rely on standardized height indicators as our health indicator sincethey avoid the measurement pitfalls of more traditional measures of health such as morbidity,mortality and life expectancy. They also avoid measurement problems associated with usingincomes across time or place to compare welfare. Our calculation of world height inequalityindicates that in contrast with similar research on income inequality, within-country variation is thesource of most inequality, rather than the differences between countries.NBR〉
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; health ; inequality ; Gesundheitsversorgung ; Kinder ; Lebensstandard ; Sozialer Indikator ; OECD-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Several lessons learned from a Bayesian analysis of basic economic time series models by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm are presented. Models include the Cochrane-Orcutt model for serial correlation, the Koyck distributed lag model, the Unit Root model, the Instrumental Variables model and as Hierarchical Linear Mixed Models, the State-Space model and the Panel Data model. We discuss issues involved when drawing Bayesian inference on regression parameters and variance components, in particular when some parameter have substantial posterior probability near the boundary of the parameter region, and show that one should carefully scan the shape of the posterior density function. Analytical, graphical and empirical results are used along the way.
    Keywords: C11 ; C15 ; C22 ; C23 ; C30 ; ddc:330 ; Gibbs sampler ; MCMC ; serial correlation ; non-stationarity ; reduced rank models ; state-space models ; random effects panel data models
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: We forecast the term structure of U.S. Treasury zero-coupon bond yields by analyzing a range of models that have been used in the literature. We assess the relevance of parameter uncertainty by examining the added value of using Bayesian inference compared to frequentist estimation techniques, and model uncertainty by combining forecasts from individual models. Following current literature we also investigate the benefits of incorporating macroeconomic information in yield curve models. Our results show that adding macroeconomic factors is very beneficial for improving the out-of-sample forecasting performance of individual models. Despite this, the predictive accuracy of models varies over time considerably, irrespective of using the Bayesian or frequentist approach. We show that mitigating model uncertainty by combining forecasts leads to substantial gains in forecasting performance, especially when applying Bayesian model averaging.
    Keywords: C5 ; C11 ; C32 ; E43 ; E47 ; F47 ; ddc:330 ; Term structure of interest rates ; Nelson-Siegel model ; Affine term structure model ; forecast combination ; Bayesian analysis ; Zinsstruktur ; Bayes-Statistik ; Prognoseverfahren
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Heterogeneity in reporting of health by socio-economic and demographic characteristics potentially biases the measurement of health disparities. We use anchoring vignettes to identify socio-demographic differences in the reporting of health in Indonesia, India and China. Homogeneous reporting by socio-demographic group is rejected and correcting for reporting heterogeneity tends to reduce slightly estimated disparities in health by education (not China) and to increase those by income. But the method does not reveal substantial reporting bias in measures of health disparities.
    Keywords: D30 ; D31 ; I10 ; I12 ; ddc:330 ; health measurement ; vignettes ; self-reported health ; reporting heterogeneity
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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