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  • Other Sources  (43)
  • Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)  (43)
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  • Other Sources  (43)
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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper develops an axiomatic approach to the measurement of social exclusion. At the individual level, social exclusion is viewed in terms of deprivation of the person concerned with respect to different functionings in the society. At the aggregate level we treat social exclusion as a function of individual exclusions. The class of subgroup decomposable social exclusion measures using a set of independent axioms is identified. We then look at the problem of ranking exclusion profiles by exclusion dominance principle under certain restrictions. Finally, applications of decomposable and non-decomposable measures suggested in the paper using European Union and Italian data are also considered.
    Keywords: D63 ; ddc:330 ; Social Exclusion ; Axioms ; Characterization ; Dominance ; Application ; Policy ; Soziale Isolation ; Messung ; Disparitätsmass ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper proposes a method for detecting income classes based on the change-point problem. There is an increasing demand for such a method in the literature. Computation of polarization indices requires a pre-grouping of the incomes. Similarly, indices of social exclusion and sometimes indices of income inequality require detection of thresholds. The estimation procedure is implemented using a bootstrap technique. Finally, an application of the method to EU member states and to the United States is also considered.
    Keywords: D31 ; ddc:330 ; income distribution ; change-point ; thresholds ; Einkommensverteilung ; Disparitätsmass ; Soziale Isolation ; Theorie ; EU-Staaten ; Vereinigte Staaten ; change-point
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Given any income distribution, to each income we associate a subgroup containing all persons whose incomes are not higher than this income and a person?s target shortfall in a subgroup is the gap between the subgroup highest income and his own income. We then develop an absolute target shortfall ordering, which, under constancy of population size and total income, implies the Lorenz and Cowell-Ebert complaint orderings. Under the same restrictions, one distribution dominates the other by this ordering if and only if the dominated distribution can be obtained from the dominant one by a sequence of rank preserving progressive transfers, where each transfer is shared equally by all persons poorer than the donor of the transfer. The relationship of the ordering with the absolute deprivation and differential orderings, and its consistency with ranking of distributions by absolute target shortfall indices are explored. Well-known inequality indices like the absolute Gini index and the standard deviation are interpreted as absolute target shortfall indices. Finally, the possibility of a relative target shorfall ordering is also discussed.
    Keywords: D63 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; Target shortfall orderings ; transfer ; indices ; Sozialtransfer ; Einkommensverteilung ; Disparitätsmass ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper explores the relationship between two well-established concepts of measuring individual well-being: the concept of happiness, i.e. self-reported level of satisfaction with income and life, and relative deprivation/satisfaction, i.e. the gaps between the individual?s income and the incomes of all individuals richer/poorer than him. Operationalizing both concepts using micro panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we provide empirical evidence for subjective well-being depending more on relative satisfaction than on absolute levels of income. This finding holds even after controlling for other influential factors in a multivariate setting.
    Keywords: I31 ; D31 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; Relative Deprivation ; Satisfaction ; SubjectiveWell-Being ; SOEP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: This paper explores the determinants of individual well-being as measured by self-reported levels of satisfaction with income. Making full use of the panel data nature of the German Socio-Economic Panel, we provide empirical evidence for well-being depending on absolute and on relative levels of income in a dynamic framework. This finding holds after controlling for other influential factors in a multivariate setting. The main novelty of the paper is the consideration of dynamic aspects: individual's own history as well as the relative income performance with respect to the others living in the society under analysis do play a major role in the assessment of well-being.
    Keywords: D63 ; I31 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; Interdependent Preferences ; Inequality Aversion ; Status ; Subjective Well-Being ; SOEP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: Das vorliegende Discussion Paper untersucht die Struktur und das Ausmaß der intergenerationalen Einkommensmobilität in Deutschland. Anhand der Daten des deutschen sozioökonomischen Panels ist es möglich, sowohl Vater-Sohn als auch Vater-Tochter Paare zu untersuchen. In einem ersten Schritt geschieht dies anhand einer Einkommensgleichung, die mittels OLS geschätzt wird. Für die Vater-Sohn Paare ergibt sich dabei eine Elastizität des väterlichen Einkommens von 0,17 und für Vater-Tochter Paare von 0,2. Das bedeutet, in Deutschland werden im Durchschnitt 17 % bzw. 20 % des elterlichen Einkommensvorteils bzw. -nachteils vererbt. Im nächsten Schritt erfolgt eine detailliertere Analyse der intergenerationalen Einkommensmobilität anhand einer Quantilsregression und anhand einer geschätzten Übergangsmatrix sowohl für Söhne als auch für Töchter. Die Ergebnisse belegen für Deutschland ein hohes Maß an intergenerationaler Mobilität.
    Keywords: D31 ; J24 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; Intergenerational Mobility ; Germany
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper analyzes whether individuals have equal opportunity to achieve happiness (or wellbeing). We estimate sibling correlations and intergenerational correlations in self-reported life satisfaction, satisfaction with household income, job satisfaction, and satisfaction with health. We find high sibling correlations for all measures of well-being. The results suggest that family background explains, on average, between 30% and 60% of the inequality in permanent wellbeing. The influence is smaller when the siblings' psychological and geographical distance from their parental home is larger. Results from intergenerational correlations suggest that parental characteristics are considerably less important than family and community factors.
    Keywords: D3 ; I31 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; subjective well-being ; family background ; intergenerational mobility ; siblings
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-11-16
    Description: In this paper, we use 2008-2013 American Community Survey data to update and further probe evidence on son preference in the United States. In light of the substantial increase in immigration, we examine this question separately for natives and immigrants. Dahl and Moretti (2008) found earlier evidence consistent with son preference in that having a female first child raised fertility and increased the probability that the family was living without a father. We find that for our more recent period, having a female first child still raises the likelihood of living without a father, but is instead associated with lower fertility, particularly for natives. Thus, by the 2008-2013 period, any apparent son preference in fertility decisions appears to have been outweighed by factors such as cost concerns in raising girls or increased female bargaining power. In contrast, some evidence for son preference in fertility persists among immigrants. Immigrant families that have a female first child have significantly higher fertility and are more likely to be living without a father (though not significantly so). Further, gender inequity in source countries is associated with son preference in fertility among immigrants. For both first and second generation immigrants, the impact of a female first-born on fertility is more pronounced for immigrants from source countries with less gender equity. Finally, we find no evidence of sex selection for the general population of natives and immigrants, suggesting that it does not provide an alternative mechanism to account for the disappearance of a positive fertility effect for natives.
    Keywords: J11 ; J12 ; J13 ; J15 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; gender ; son preference ; family structure ; fertility ; sex selection ; immigrants
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-04-18
    Description: We estimate the causal effect of maternal education on the mental health of mother's children in late adolescence and adulthood. Theoretical considerations are ambiguous about a causal effect of maternal education on children's mental health. To identify the causal effect of maternal education, we exploit exogenous variation in maternal years of schooling, caused by a compulsory schooling law reform in West Germany. Based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we find no evidence of a causal protective effect of maternal education on children's mental health. Instead, our empirical results suggest a moderate negative effect of maternal education on the daughters' mental health. We find no effects for the sons. Our investigation of potential mechanisms is consistent with the hypothesis that the negative effect of higher maternal labor supply outweighs the positive effect of an expansion in household resources.
    Keywords: I10 ; I21 ; I26 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; mental health ; education ; compulsory schooling reform ; intergenerational mobility
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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