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  • ddc:330  (169)
  • Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)  (145)
  • Amsterdam: Elsevier  (24)
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  • 1
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Three billion people cook their food on biomass-fueled fires. This practice contributes to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions from cooking, however, cookstoves made from modern materials and distributed through energy-intensive supply chains have higher embodied CO2-equivalent than traditional cookstoves. No studies exist examining whether lifetime emissions savings from fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves offset embodied emissions, and if so, by what margin. This paper is a complete life cycle inventory of 'The Berkeley-Darfur Stove,' disseminated in Sudan by the non-profit Potential Energy. We estimate the embodied CO2-equivalent in the cookstove associated with materials, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life is 17kg of CO2-equivalent. Assuming a mix of 55% non-renewable biomass and 45% renewable biomass, five years of service, and a conservative 35% reduction in fuel use relative to a three-stone fire, the cookstove will offset 7.5 tonnes of CO2-equivalent. A one-to-one replacement of a three-stone fire with the cookstove will save roughly 440 times more CO2-equivalent than it 'costs' to create and distribute. Over its five-year life, we estimate the total use-phase emissions of the cookstove to be 13.5 tonnes CO2-equivalent, and the use-phase accounts for 99.9% of cookstove life cycle emissions. The dominance of use-phase emissions illuminate two important insights: (1) without a rigorous program to monitor use-phase emissions, an accurate estimate of life cycle emissions from biomass cookstoves is not possible, and (2) improving a cookstove's avoided emissions relies almost exclusively on reducing use-phase emissions even if use-phase reductions come at the cost of substantially increased non-use-phase emissions.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: Natural and agricultural resources for which there is a substantial black market, such as coca, opium, and diamonds, appear especially likely to be exploited by the parties to a civil conflict. Even legally traded commodities such as oil and timber have been linked to civil war. On the other hand, these resources may also provide one of the few reliable sources of income in the countryside. In this paper, we study the economic and social consequences of a major exogenous shift in the production of one such resource coca paste into Colombia, where most coca leaf is now harvested. Our analysis shows that this shift generated only modest economic gains in rural areas, primarily in the form of increased self-employment earnings and increased labor supply by teenage boys. The results also suggest that the rural areas which saw accelerated coca production subsequently became more violent, while urban areas were affected little. The acceleration in violence is greater in departments (provinces) where there was a pre-coca guerilla presence. Taken together, these findings are consistent with the view that the Colombian civil conflict is fueled by the financial opportunities that coca provides, and that the consequent rent-seeking activity by combatants limits the economic gains from coca cultivation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Koka ; Ländliches Einkommen ; Ländliche Entwicklung ; Bürgerkrieg ; Kolumbien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: We estimate the effect of immigrant flows on native employment in Western Europe, and then ask whether the employment consequences of immigration vary with institutions that affect labor market flexibility. Reduced flexibility may protect natives from immigrant competition in the near term, but our theoretical framework suggests that reduced flexibility is likely to increase the negative impact of immigration on equilibrium employment. In models without interactions, OLS estimates for a panel of European countries in the 1980s and 1990s show small, mostly negative immigration effects. To reduce bias from the possible endogeneity of immigration flows, we use the fact that many immigrants arriving after 1991 were refugees from the Balkan wars. An IV strategy based on variation in the number of immigrants from former Yugoslavia generates larger though mostly insignificant negative estimates. We then estimate models allowing interactions between the employment response to immigration and institutional characteristics including business entry costs. These results, limited to the sample of native men, generally suggest that reduced flexibility increases the negative impact of immigration. Many of the estimated interaction terms are significant, and imply a significant negative effect on employment in countries with restrictive institutions.
    Keywords: J23 ; J61 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; Immigrant absorption ; European unemployment ; labor market flexibility ; entry costs ; Einwanderung ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsmarktflexibilisierung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2016-08-27
    Description: In an effort to increase booster seat use among children, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is encouraging state legislators to promote stricter booster seat laws, yet there is a paucity of information on booster seat efficacy relative to other forms of restraint. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for the period 2008-2014 and the sample selection correction proposed by Levitt and Porter (2001), the current study examines the effectiveness of booster seats relative to child safety seats and adult seat belts. For children 6 to 8 years of age, we find that booster seats are more than twice as effective as child safety seats and over 30 percent more effective than standard seat belts at decreasing the likelihood of fatality in a motor vehicle accident. For children 2 to 5 years of age, all three forms of restraint appear equally effective.
    Keywords: I12 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; booster seats ; child safety seats ; traffic fatalities
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Based on brother correlations in permanent earnings for different groups of second generation immigrants, the findings in this paper indicate that cultural background is not a major determinant of the level of intergenerational economic mobility.
    Description: This is the author's version of a work that was accepted for publication in Economics Letters. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Economics Letters 114(2012), 3, pp. 335-337 and is online available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2011.11.007.
    Keywords: J62 ; ddc:330 ; Intergenerational mobility ; Sibling correlations ; Family background ; Equality of opportunities ; Einkommen ; Soziale Mobilität ; Migranten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 6
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: This paper presents effect of thermo-physical properties of soil on performance of an Earth Air Tunnel Heat Exchanger (EATHE). The analysis has been carried out using a validated three-dimensional, transient numerical model for three different types of soil. The governing equations, based on the k-ε model and energy equation were used to describe the turbulence and heat transfer phenomena, are solved by using finite volume method. Comparisons were made in terms of temperature drop, heat transfer rate and COP of the EATHE system by operating it continuously for 12 h duration. The study reveals that each soil exhibits different rate of heat dissipation and thermal saturation over a period of continuous operation, which adversely affects the performance of EATHE. Dissipation of heat from the EATHE pipes to its surrounding soil and subsequently to the outer subsoil region is mainly found to be depending upon the thermal conductivity of soil; even of their thermal diffusivity is of different order.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 7
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Analysis of water use for power generation has, in the past, focused on large geographical regions and time scales. Attempting to refine this analysis on the time and spatial scales could help to further understand the complex relationships involved in the energy-water nexus, specifically, the water required to generate power. Water factors for different types of plants and cooling systems are used from literature in combination with power generation data for different balancing authorities to model water use as a function of time based on the fuel mix and power generated for that region. This model is designed to increase public awareness of the interrelation between the energy consumed and water use that can be taken into account when making decisions about electrical energy use. These results confirm that areas with higher renewable energy penetration use less water per unit of power generated than those with little or no renewable technologies in the area, but this effect is heavily dependent on the distribution of the types of renewable and conventional generation used.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Generation mix ; Power generation ; Thermoelectric power ; Water conservation ; Water use
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 8
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Combined heat and power (CHP) production in buildings is one of the mitigation options available for achieving a considerable decrease in GHG emissions. Micro-CHP (mCHP) fuel cells are capable of cogenerating electricity and heat very efficiently on a decentralised basis. Although they offer clear environmental benefits and have the potential to create a systemic change in energy provision, the diffusion of mCHP fuel cells is rather slow. There are numerous potential drivers for the successful diffusion of fuel cell cogeneration units, but key economic actors are often unaware of them. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of barriers, drivers and business opportunities surrounding micro-CHP fuel-cell units (up to 5 kWel) in the German building market. Business opportunities have been identified based not only on quantitative data for drivers and barriers, but also on discussions with relevant stakeholders such as housing associations, which are key institutional demand-side actors. These business opportunities include fuel cell contracting as well as the development of a large lighthouse project to demonstrate the climate-neutral, efficient use of fuel cells in the residential building sector. The next step could involve the examination and development of more detailed options and business models. The approach and methods used in the survey may be applied on a larger scale and in other sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Fuel cells ; Innovation barriers ; Low-carbon buildings ; Market survey
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: This article studies the long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF (recentered influence function) regression based decompositions to measure the role of potential explanatory factors behind these mobility changes. Increasing job stability is an important factor associated with the East German mobility decline.
    Keywords: J30 ; J31 ; J60 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; wage mobility ; earnings mobility ; income mobility ; Germany ; East Germany ; inequality ; transition matrix ; Shorrocks index ; administrative data ; Lohnstruktur ; Einkommen ; Soziale Mobilität ; Einkommensverteilung ; Alte Bundesländer ; Neue Bundesländer ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: This paper estimates sibling correlations in cognitive and non-cognitive skills to evaluate the importance of family background for skill formation. Based on a large representative German dataset including IQ test scores and measures of non-cognitive skills, a restricted maximum likelihood model indicates a strong relationship between family background and skill formation. Sibling correlations in non-cognitive skills range from 0.22 to 0.46; therefore, at least one-fifth of the variance in these skills results from shared sibling-related factors. Sibling correlations in cognitive skills are higher than 0.50; therefore, more than half of the inequality in cognition can be explained by shared family background. Comparing these findings with those in the intergenerational skill transmission literature suggests that intergenerational correlations capture only part of the influence of family on children's cognitive and non-cognitive skills, as confirmed by decomposition analyses and in line with previous findings on educational and income mobility.
    Keywords: J24 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; sibling correlations ; family background ; non-cognitive skills ; cognitive skills ; intergenerational mobility
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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