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  • ddc:330  (58)
  • Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)  (34)
  • Amsterdam: Elsevier  (24)
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  • 1
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Three billion people cook their food on biomass-fueled fires. This practice contributes to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions from cooking, however, cookstoves made from modern materials and distributed through energy-intensive supply chains have higher embodied CO2-equivalent than traditional cookstoves. No studies exist examining whether lifetime emissions savings from fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves offset embodied emissions, and if so, by what margin. This paper is a complete life cycle inventory of 'The Berkeley-Darfur Stove,' disseminated in Sudan by the non-profit Potential Energy. We estimate the embodied CO2-equivalent in the cookstove associated with materials, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life is 17kg of CO2-equivalent. Assuming a mix of 55% non-renewable biomass and 45% renewable biomass, five years of service, and a conservative 35% reduction in fuel use relative to a three-stone fire, the cookstove will offset 7.5 tonnes of CO2-equivalent. A one-to-one replacement of a three-stone fire with the cookstove will save roughly 440 times more CO2-equivalent than it 'costs' to create and distribute. Over its five-year life, we estimate the total use-phase emissions of the cookstove to be 13.5 tonnes CO2-equivalent, and the use-phase accounts for 99.9% of cookstove life cycle emissions. The dominance of use-phase emissions illuminate two important insights: (1) without a rigorous program to monitor use-phase emissions, an accurate estimate of life cycle emissions from biomass cookstoves is not possible, and (2) improving a cookstove's avoided emissions relies almost exclusively on reducing use-phase emissions even if use-phase reductions come at the cost of substantially increased non-use-phase emissions.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: The effect of wine ratings on pricing has been a question for wine consumers for some time. Ultimately, wine preference, and thus how one judges a wine, is a subjective endeavor. Wine professionals have long rated wines and those published ratings have some effect on consumer sales. Previously, wine studies have found that there is a connection between rating and price. This study looks to try to verify that connection through insuring that best fit model development is used. For the first time in wine research, the authors have utilized Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare different models and more dynamic hypothesis testing to explore the relationship between ratings and prices of wines. In the end, it was confirmed that there is a link, and the use of AIC also helped to not only confirm previous findings, but also to identify a new concern in wine ratings.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Akaike Information Criteria ; Model testing ; Wine ; Wine rating
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: Despite the high likelihood of infection and substantial yield losses from trunk diseases, many California practitioners wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, and application of pruning-wound protectants) until after disease symptoms appear in the vineyard at around 10 years old. We evaluate net benefits from adoption of these practices before symptoms appear in young Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards and after they become apparent in mature vineyards to identify economic hurdles to early adoption. We simulate winegrape production in select counties of California and find widespread benefits from early adoption, increasing vineyard profitable lifespans, in some cases, by close to 50%. However, hurdles may result from uncertainty about the cost and returns from adoption, labor constraints, long time lags in benefits from early adoption, growers' perceived probabilities of infection, and their discount rate. Development of extension resources communicating benefits and potential hurdles to growers likely reduces uncertainty, increasing early adoption. Improvements in efficacy of preventative practices, perhaps by detecting when pathogen spores are released into the vineyard, will increase early adoption. Lastly, practice cost reductions will increase early adoption too, especially when the time it takes for adoption to payoff and infection uncertainty are influential in adoption decisions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Early adoption ; Grapevine trunk diseases ; Plant-disease management ; Preventative practices
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: The objective of this paper is to review new restrictions imposed on land sales in selected Eastern EU Member States and to investigate the potential impacts of these restrictions on land prices, transaction distortions, and access to land. The main common element of the new regulations across the four studied countries (Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia) is the introduction of the pre-emption rights to selected groups of potential buyers which tend to favor domestic and local farmers relative to external competition. However, the coverage of pre-emption rights differs strongly across countries. The regulation adopted in Slovakia is the most restrictive, followed by Latvia and Poland; Romania has adopted the least restrictive measures. We expect market transactions as well as land prices to decline due to reduced competition, causing foregone income to non-farming landowners.
    Keywords: F12 ; L11 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; P32 ; ddc:330 ; Land Market ; SAPS ; institutions ; agricultural policy ; CEE
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: The present paper studies causes of the social and economic marginalisation, in particular, the role of social mobility barriers for Roma. We have identified two types of social mobility barriers for Roma: the cost of exit from the traditional Roma community and the cost of entry into the mainstream society. The existing policy and academic debate on the social mobility of Roma has been focused almost entirely on entry barriers, whereas exit barriers have been acknowledged and studied to a much lesser extent. In this study we advocate that from a policy perspective it is important to understand differences between the two types of social mobility barriers, as they have different causes and hence have to be addressed by different policy instruments. Further, it is important that both types of social mobility barriers are addressed simultaneously, as they interact and reinforce each other mutually. Third, addressing social mobility barriers of Roma requires a change of both formal and informal institutions. Therefore, policy measures have to be implemented and sustained over a long period of time in order to have a sustainable impact on the social and economic integration of Roma.
    Keywords: O17 ; O43 ; I32 ; ddc:330 ; Roma ; informal institutions ; self-enforcing institution ; discrimination ; self-isolation ; social and economic marginalisation ; exit/entry barriers ; social mobility
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Decoupled direct payments were introduced in the European Union (EU) by the 2003 CAP reform in form of the Single Payment Scheme (SPS) and the Single Area Payment System (SAPS). The 2013 CAP reform changed both the implementation of decoupled payments as well as its budget. We assess the possible effects of the 2013 CAP reform on the capitalization of decoupled payments in land rental values. Our estimates suggest that the CAP reform leads to an increase in the capitalization of decoupled payments by additional 16 cents for each EUR of decoupled payments relative to the pre-reform situation. However, there is a relatively large variation in the reform effects between MS particularly between Old Member States (OMS) and New MS (NMS). In NMS the capitalization rate slightly reduces from 76% in the pre-reform period to 72% in the post-reform period. Although, the rate is significantly lower in OMS, it almost doubles (from 20% to 39%) due to the reform. The main source of the post-reform capitalization in the EU are the entitlement stock changes accounting for 19% of total post-reform capitalization level, followed by the internal convergence of payments with 18%, the budget change (including external convergence) with 1%, and the differentiation of payments (redistributive payment) with -7%. Overall, our estimates suggest that on average in the EU, the non-farming landowners' policy gains are 25% of total decoupled payments in the post-reform period compared to 17% in the pre-reform period.
    Keywords: H22 ; Q11 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Capitalization ; Decoupled subsidies ; CAP reform ; Land market ; Land prices ; Land rents ; EU
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: In June 2016, the European Commission issued a new EU Blue Card proposal. This proposal is meant to make the EU more attractive for highly qualified workers from third countries. While strengthening the knowledge economy of the EU, the potential impacts of the new Blue Card proposal on developing countries are less known. The present study attempts to shed light on potential challenges and opportunities for developing countries by analysing conceptually the potential socio-economic impacts of the new EU Blue Card proposal. Our results suggest that the EU Blue Card may reduce the human capital, the knowledge capital, and hence growth and development prospects in developing countries, if not accompanied by appropriate policy measures. We identify and examine a number of policy measures, which could help turning the sending country challenges into opportunities. Our results suggest that policies implemented on the demand side of the labour market are more efficient than policies that address the supply side of the labour market, though they are less costly to implement. Developing countries can also benefit from the knowledge diffusion from the EU, if sufficient human resources are available to use this knowledge.
    Keywords: C68 ; D58 ; F22 ; J20 ; J61 ; J64 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; High-skill migration ; EU Blue Card ; knowledge-based capital ; endogenous growth ; developing countries.
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: The issues of the forced migration and integration of refugees in the EU society and labour markets are high on the policy agenda. Apart from humanitarian aspects, a sustainable integration of accepted refugees is important also for social, economic, budgetary and other reasons. Although, the potential consequences of the refugee acceptance are being often discussed, little scientific evidence has been provided for the policy debate so far in the context of the current refugee crisis. The present study attempts to shed light on the long-run social, economic and budgetary effects of the rapidly increasing forced immigration into the EU by performing a scenario analysis of alternative refugee integration scenarios. Our simulation results suggest that, although the refugee integration (e.g. by the providing language and professional training) is costly for the public budget, in the medium- to long-run, the social, economic and fiscal benefits may significantly outweigh the short-run refugee integration costs. Depending on the integration policy scenario and policy financing method, the annual long-run GDP effect would be 0.2% to 1.4% above the baseline growth, and the full repayment of the integration policy investment (positive net present value) would be achieved after 9 to 19 years.
    Keywords: F22 ; J6 ; J11 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Migration ; refugees ; labour market ; integration policy ; modelling ; scenario analysis ; macroeconomic model
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: In the age of the knowledge economy and globalisation, the skill mobility is perceived as one of the key factors for fully unlocking the human capital potential. The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) aims at increasing the workers' and learners' mobility among the EU Member States by making national qualifications readable across the EU. The present study analyses the impact of the EQF on education, skills, migration and the economic growth by performing a conceptual analysis and numerical simulations of the high-skill market integration through the EQF with a newly developed macroeconomic model of the European Commission. Whereas education is the main driver of the upward skill mobility, migration drives the spatial skill mobility. Our results suggest that the EQF would facilitate the high-skill labour market integration, which in turn would generate significant welfare gains for the EU. Both the social and macroeconomic effects of the EQF are positive at the aggregate level. However, their distribution across different Member States, regions, economic sectors and skill levels is differentiated. Hence, accompanying policy measures may be required to ensure an inclusive growth arising from the high-skill market integration.
    Keywords: C68 ; D58 ; F22 ; J20 ; J61 ; J64 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Education ; skills ; employment ; labour ; migration ; wage ; human capital ; macroeconomic modelling
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: In this chapter, we review land market institutions in the European Union (EU) and their potential impact on land markets. We first review land tenure-/ownership regulations and find that they vary heavily across EU Member States. Four types of tenure-/ownership measures are implemented in the EU: to protect the tenant, to protect the owner, to protect the (non-farm) land owner, and to prevent land fragmentation. We then examine EU land-related environmental regulations whose general objective is to address land market failures linked to externalities and the provision of public goods. Despite possibly reducing private benefits of land owners or users, environmental regulations may generate welfare gains to society by improving the environmental services on land. Finally, we investigate how area-based subsidies affect land prices. These subsidies are empirically found to be partially capitalized into land values, albeit at a lower rate than suggested by theory.
    Keywords: H22 ; L11 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; P32 ; R12 ; ddc:330 ; Land markets ; institutions ; tenure ; ownership ; externalities ; public goods
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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