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  • ddc:330  (34)
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  • Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)  (34)
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  • 1
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: The objective of this paper is to review new restrictions imposed on land sales in selected Eastern EU Member States and to investigate the potential impacts of these restrictions on land prices, transaction distortions, and access to land. The main common element of the new regulations across the four studied countries (Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia) is the introduction of the pre-emption rights to selected groups of potential buyers which tend to favor domestic and local farmers relative to external competition. However, the coverage of pre-emption rights differs strongly across countries. The regulation adopted in Slovakia is the most restrictive, followed by Latvia and Poland; Romania has adopted the least restrictive measures. We expect market transactions as well as land prices to decline due to reduced competition, causing foregone income to non-farming landowners.
    Keywords: F12 ; L11 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; P32 ; ddc:330 ; Land Market ; SAPS ; institutions ; agricultural policy ; CEE
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: The present paper studies causes of the social and economic marginalisation, in particular, the role of social mobility barriers for Roma. We have identified two types of social mobility barriers for Roma: the cost of exit from the traditional Roma community and the cost of entry into the mainstream society. The existing policy and academic debate on the social mobility of Roma has been focused almost entirely on entry barriers, whereas exit barriers have been acknowledged and studied to a much lesser extent. In this study we advocate that from a policy perspective it is important to understand differences between the two types of social mobility barriers, as they have different causes and hence have to be addressed by different policy instruments. Further, it is important that both types of social mobility barriers are addressed simultaneously, as they interact and reinforce each other mutually. Third, addressing social mobility barriers of Roma requires a change of both formal and informal institutions. Therefore, policy measures have to be implemented and sustained over a long period of time in order to have a sustainable impact on the social and economic integration of Roma.
    Keywords: O17 ; O43 ; I32 ; ddc:330 ; Roma ; informal institutions ; self-enforcing institution ; discrimination ; self-isolation ; social and economic marginalisation ; exit/entry barriers ; social mobility
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Decoupled direct payments were introduced in the European Union (EU) by the 2003 CAP reform in form of the Single Payment Scheme (SPS) and the Single Area Payment System (SAPS). The 2013 CAP reform changed both the implementation of decoupled payments as well as its budget. We assess the possible effects of the 2013 CAP reform on the capitalization of decoupled payments in land rental values. Our estimates suggest that the CAP reform leads to an increase in the capitalization of decoupled payments by additional 16 cents for each EUR of decoupled payments relative to the pre-reform situation. However, there is a relatively large variation in the reform effects between MS particularly between Old Member States (OMS) and New MS (NMS). In NMS the capitalization rate slightly reduces from 76% in the pre-reform period to 72% in the post-reform period. Although, the rate is significantly lower in OMS, it almost doubles (from 20% to 39%) due to the reform. The main source of the post-reform capitalization in the EU are the entitlement stock changes accounting for 19% of total post-reform capitalization level, followed by the internal convergence of payments with 18%, the budget change (including external convergence) with 1%, and the differentiation of payments (redistributive payment) with -7%. Overall, our estimates suggest that on average in the EU, the non-farming landowners' policy gains are 25% of total decoupled payments in the post-reform period compared to 17% in the pre-reform period.
    Keywords: H22 ; Q11 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Capitalization ; Decoupled subsidies ; CAP reform ; Land market ; Land prices ; Land rents ; EU
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: In June 2016, the European Commission issued a new EU Blue Card proposal. This proposal is meant to make the EU more attractive for highly qualified workers from third countries. While strengthening the knowledge economy of the EU, the potential impacts of the new Blue Card proposal on developing countries are less known. The present study attempts to shed light on potential challenges and opportunities for developing countries by analysing conceptually the potential socio-economic impacts of the new EU Blue Card proposal. Our results suggest that the EU Blue Card may reduce the human capital, the knowledge capital, and hence growth and development prospects in developing countries, if not accompanied by appropriate policy measures. We identify and examine a number of policy measures, which could help turning the sending country challenges into opportunities. Our results suggest that policies implemented on the demand side of the labour market are more efficient than policies that address the supply side of the labour market, though they are less costly to implement. Developing countries can also benefit from the knowledge diffusion from the EU, if sufficient human resources are available to use this knowledge.
    Keywords: C68 ; D58 ; F22 ; J20 ; J61 ; J64 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; High-skill migration ; EU Blue Card ; knowledge-based capital ; endogenous growth ; developing countries.
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: The issues of the forced migration and integration of refugees in the EU society and labour markets are high on the policy agenda. Apart from humanitarian aspects, a sustainable integration of accepted refugees is important also for social, economic, budgetary and other reasons. Although, the potential consequences of the refugee acceptance are being often discussed, little scientific evidence has been provided for the policy debate so far in the context of the current refugee crisis. The present study attempts to shed light on the long-run social, economic and budgetary effects of the rapidly increasing forced immigration into the EU by performing a scenario analysis of alternative refugee integration scenarios. Our simulation results suggest that, although the refugee integration (e.g. by the providing language and professional training) is costly for the public budget, in the medium- to long-run, the social, economic and fiscal benefits may significantly outweigh the short-run refugee integration costs. Depending on the integration policy scenario and policy financing method, the annual long-run GDP effect would be 0.2% to 1.4% above the baseline growth, and the full repayment of the integration policy investment (positive net present value) would be achieved after 9 to 19 years.
    Keywords: F22 ; J6 ; J11 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Migration ; refugees ; labour market ; integration policy ; modelling ; scenario analysis ; macroeconomic model
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: In the age of the knowledge economy and globalisation, the skill mobility is perceived as one of the key factors for fully unlocking the human capital potential. The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) aims at increasing the workers' and learners' mobility among the EU Member States by making national qualifications readable across the EU. The present study analyses the impact of the EQF on education, skills, migration and the economic growth by performing a conceptual analysis and numerical simulations of the high-skill market integration through the EQF with a newly developed macroeconomic model of the European Commission. Whereas education is the main driver of the upward skill mobility, migration drives the spatial skill mobility. Our results suggest that the EQF would facilitate the high-skill labour market integration, which in turn would generate significant welfare gains for the EU. Both the social and macroeconomic effects of the EQF are positive at the aggregate level. However, their distribution across different Member States, regions, economic sectors and skill levels is differentiated. Hence, accompanying policy measures may be required to ensure an inclusive growth arising from the high-skill market integration.
    Keywords: C68 ; D58 ; F22 ; J20 ; J61 ; J64 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Education ; skills ; employment ; labour ; migration ; wage ; human capital ; macroeconomic modelling
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: In this chapter, we review land market institutions in the European Union (EU) and their potential impact on land markets. We first review land tenure-/ownership regulations and find that they vary heavily across EU Member States. Four types of tenure-/ownership measures are implemented in the EU: to protect the tenant, to protect the owner, to protect the (non-farm) land owner, and to prevent land fragmentation. We then examine EU land-related environmental regulations whose general objective is to address land market failures linked to externalities and the provision of public goods. Despite possibly reducing private benefits of land owners or users, environmental regulations may generate welfare gains to society by improving the environmental services on land. Finally, we investigate how area-based subsidies affect land prices. These subsidies are empirically found to be partially capitalized into land values, albeit at a lower rate than suggested by theory.
    Keywords: H22 ; L11 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; P32 ; R12 ; ddc:330 ; Land markets ; institutions ; tenure ; ownership ; externalities ; public goods
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: This study empirically examines interdependencies between BitCoin and altcoin markets in the short- and long-run. We apply time-series analytical mechanisms to daily data of 17 virtual currencies (BitCoin + 16 alternative virtual currencies) and two Altcoin price indices for the period 2013-2016. Our empirical findings confirm that indeed BitCoin and Altcoin markets are interdependent. The BitCoin-Altcoin price relationship is significantly stronger in the short-run than in the long-run. We cannot fully confirm the hypothesis that the BitCoin price relationship is stronger with those Altcoins that are more similar in their price formation mechanism to BitCoin. In the long-run, macro-financial indicators determine the altcoin price formation to a greater degree than BitCoin does. The virtual currency supply is exogenous and therefore plays only a limited role in the price formation.
    Keywords: E31 ; E42 ; G12 ; ddc:330 ; BitCoin ; altcoins ; virtual currencies ; price formation ; supply ; demand ; macroeconomic development
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: In this paper we estimate the income distributional effects of the common agricultural policy (CAP) for farmers and landowners. First, we theoretically analyse the level of farmers' and landowners' gains from coupled and decoupled payments. Second, using a unique farm level panel data set from the FADN for the period 1995-2007 we employ the fixed effects, the Heckman selection bias and the GMM estimators to estimate income distributional effects of CAP subsidies. The results do not confirm the theoretical hypothesis that landowners benefit a large share of the CAP subsidies. According to our estimates, farmers gain between 60% to 95%, 80% to 178% and 86% to 90% of the total value of coupled crop/animal, coupled RDP and decupled payments, respectively. The CAP subsidies are only marginally capitalised in land rents. Our results suggest that the rental rates are more responsive to structural variables and show a strong time dependency, suggesting the presence of rigidities in the EU rental markets, which constraint the adjustment of land rents to market signals and thus reduce landowners' gains from the CAP.
    Keywords: F12 ; L11 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; P32 ; R12 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Distributional effects ; panel microdata ; GMM ; CAP ; land rents
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This paper presents the new dynamic spatial general equilibrium (DSGE) model – RHOMOLO, which is built to support the EU policy design by undertaking holistic, micro-founded and disaggregated policy impact assessment. The RHOMOLO model is based on the theories of general equilibrium, endogenous growth and new economic geography and incorporates a multi-level government system. The holistic framework of RHOMOLO allows to assess not only economic, but also social and environmental effects of European policies along regional, sectoral and temporal dimensions.
    Keywords: C63 ; C68 ; D58 ; F1 ; F12 ; H41 ; O1 ; O31 ; O40 ; R13 ; R3 ; R4 ; ddc:330 ; Economic modelling ; spatial dynamics ; policy impact assessment ; regional development ; economic geography ; spatial equilibrium ; DSGE
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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