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  • ddc:330  (55)
  • Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)  (31)
  • Amsterdam: Elsevier  (24)
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  • 1
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: This paper contributes to the scant body of literature on inequalities among and within ethnic groups in the Philippines by examining both the vertical and horizontal measures in terms of opportunities in accessing basic services such as education, electricity, safe water, and sanitation. The study also provides a glimpse of the patterns of inequality in Mindanao. The results show that there are significant inequalities in opportunities in accessing basic services within and among ethnic groups in the Philippines. Muslims (particularly indigenous people) are the worst-off ethnic groups while the non-indigenous/non-Muslim groups are the better-off groups. Disparities in terms of literacy rate and access to electricity and sanitation between ethnic groups, however, appear to be narrowing between 2000 and 2010.
    Keywords: J15 ; I24 ; Z13 ; C13 ; ddc:330 ; ethnic group ; horizontal inequality ; indigenous people ; inequality of opportunities ; Mindanao ; Philippines
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Three billion people cook their food on biomass-fueled fires. This practice contributes to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions from cooking, however, cookstoves made from modern materials and distributed through energy-intensive supply chains have higher embodied CO2-equivalent than traditional cookstoves. No studies exist examining whether lifetime emissions savings from fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves offset embodied emissions, and if so, by what margin. This paper is a complete life cycle inventory of 'The Berkeley-Darfur Stove,' disseminated in Sudan by the non-profit Potential Energy. We estimate the embodied CO2-equivalent in the cookstove associated with materials, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life is 17kg of CO2-equivalent. Assuming a mix of 55% non-renewable biomass and 45% renewable biomass, five years of service, and a conservative 35% reduction in fuel use relative to a three-stone fire, the cookstove will offset 7.5 tonnes of CO2-equivalent. A one-to-one replacement of a three-stone fire with the cookstove will save roughly 440 times more CO2-equivalent than it 'costs' to create and distribute. Over its five-year life, we estimate the total use-phase emissions of the cookstove to be 13.5 tonnes CO2-equivalent, and the use-phase accounts for 99.9% of cookstove life cycle emissions. The dominance of use-phase emissions illuminate two important insights: (1) without a rigorous program to monitor use-phase emissions, an accurate estimate of life cycle emissions from biomass cookstoves is not possible, and (2) improving a cookstove's avoided emissions relies almost exclusively on reducing use-phase emissions even if use-phase reductions come at the cost of substantially increased non-use-phase emissions.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: The economic prescription for climate change is clear: price carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions to internalize climate damages. In practice, a variety of political economy constraints prevent the introduction of a carbon price equal to the full social cost of emissions. This paper develops insights about the design of climate policy in the face of binding political constraints, formulated here as limits on the CO2 price itself, on increases in energy prices, and on energy consumer and producer surplus loss. We employ a stylized model of the energy sector to develop intuition about the welfare-maximizing combination of CO2 price, subsidy for clean energy production, and lump-sum transfers to energy consumers or producers under each constraint. We find that the strategic use of subsidies or transfers can compensate for or relieve political constraints and significantly improve the efficiency and environmental efficacy of carbon pricing policies.
    Keywords: H23 ; Q48 ; Q54 ; Q58 ; ddc:330 ; political economy ; carbon pricing ; environmental economics ; public economics ; climate change ; instrument choice ; carbon tax ; emissions trading
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: The business rights pillar of the Legal Empowerment of the Poor agenda is not preoccupied with equality of outcome; it concentrates instead on equality of opportunity. This paper addresses the lacuna in the business rights literature by 'bringing outcomes back in'. Certainly, equal outcomes are difficult to achieve and require understanding of a host of group as well as individual characteristics, and the complex obstacles to distributing benefits more broadly and beneficially, especially to members of groups that have faced historical discrimination in business. In order to understand some of the ways in which the interests of the poor can be advanced in business, and how mere business rights might be complemented, this research extends the analysis to include what I call active business rights reforms.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Africa ; legal empowerment ; business rights ; entrepreneurship ; empowerment ; affirmative action
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: Are victims of human rights abuses better off with or without economic sanctions targeted at their perpetrators? We study this question in the context of a US human rights policy, Section 1502 of the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act. By discouraging companies from sourcing 'conflict minerals' from the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, the policy has acted as a de facto boycott on mineral purchases that may finance warlords and armed militias. We estimate the policy's impact on mortality outcomes of children born prior to 2013 and find that it increased the probability of infant deaths in villages near the regulated 'conflict mineral' deposits by at least 143 per cent. We find suggestive evidence that the legislation-induced boycott did so by stunting mother consumption of infant health care goods and services.
    Keywords: F51 ; I15 ; O17 ; Q34 ; ddc:330 ; sanctions ; infant mortality ; conflict minerals ; Dodd-Frank Act ; Democratic Republic of the Congo ; resource certification
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: This paper uses a recent household survey and the CEQ framework to revisit and extend previous research on the impact of fiscal policy on income redistribution, and poverty in South Africa. We find, in accordance with previous research, that direct taxes and cash transfers are overall progressive and reduce inequality and poverty. Our disaggregated analyses, however, reveal that medical and interest tax benefits are regressive. We also find that certain social transfers provided to some minority population groups are not particularly well targeted. Periodically reviewing the effectiveness of fiscal policy at disaggregated levels would help to further improve the effectiveness of fiscal policy.
    Keywords: D31 ; H22 ; H23 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; fiscal policy ; fiscal incidence ; direct taxes ; social grants ; inequality ; poverty
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: In this paper we study the impact of tenure security on rural to urban migration of household members over the age of 15. Using three waves of the Tanzanian National Panel Survey (NPS) data, we show that tenure security is associated with lower probability of migration in rural Tanzania. This result is consistent with the idea that better property rights over agricultural land in rural Tanzania, by easing the fear of expropriation of land holdings, can induce households to retain more of their members. The result is found to be robust to different specifications and estimation techniques. Promoting land tenure security is a key policy concern in curbing rural - urban migration at early stages of development.
    Keywords: O15 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; Q24 ; ddc:330 ; migration ; Tanzania ; tenure security
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equipped to explain changes in African business cultures, which increasingly are as diverse as any across the globe. Further, at their core is a growing capacity for reproduction, as capitalists.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; African culture ; business ; capitalism ; entrepreneurship ; liberalization ; patrimonialism
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: Every person desires some level of inner fulfilment at different stages of life and this could come from a combination of several factors including material and resource acquisition and social prestige. The challenge, however, is whether happiness levels across the different social strata are the same, especially among the poor and the neglected. Using data from the Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty survey in Ghana, we analyse the factors that influence happiness among the extreme poor. The positive and negative factors are discussed in the paper.
    Keywords: D04 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; happiness ; poor households ; rural Ghana
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: This paper identifies eight political economy factors that influenced governments' policy choices during the most recent global food price crisis. To explain the variety of responses and the policy failures, a framework is proposed that locates policies along the twin dimensions of unitary vs. fragmented decision-making processes and social welfare maximizing vs. self-interested policy goals. Policies are favoured that maintain government legitimacy and produce private benefits for the best-connected stakeholders. Policy interventions were frequently ad hoc and delayed because of lack of market information, conflicts among fragmented government agencies in all governments, and extended deliberations among competing stakeholder groups.
    Keywords: D72 ; D73 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; political economy ; food prices ; public choice ; rent-seeking
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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