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  • 1
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    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2012-06-21
    Description: Crude oil samples with high- and low-water content from two offshore platforms (PA and PB) in Campos Basin, Brazil, were assessed for bacterial communities by 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries. RDP Classifier was used to analyze a total of 156 clones within four libraries obtained from two platforms. The clone sequences were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria (78.2% of the total clones); however, clones associated with Betaproteobacteria (10.9%), Alphaproteobacteria (9%), and Firmicutes (1.9%) were also identified. Pseudomonadaceae was the most common family affiliated with these clone sequences. The sequences were further analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 81 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness estimators also calculated by MOTHUR indicated that oil samples with high-water content were the most diverse. Comparison of bacterial communities present in these four samples using LIBSHUFF and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the water content significantly influenced the community structure only of crude oil obtained from PA. Differences between PA and PB libraries were observed, suggesting the importance of the oil field as a driver of community composition in this habitat.
    Print ISSN: 1687-918X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9198
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 2
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2012-05-03
    Description: Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA) MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal), chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The recently developed molecular beam—thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS) technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA), and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2012-02-07
    Description: Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA) MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal), chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The recently developed molecular beam—thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS) technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA), and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 4
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: Quantum dots (QDs) are colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals of a few nanometers in diameter, being their size and shape controlled during the synthesis. They are synthesized from atoms of group II–VI or III–V of the periodic table, such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) or cadmium selenium (CdSe) forming nanoparticles with fluorescent characteristics superior to current fluorophores. The excellent optical characteristics of quantum dots make them applied widely in the field of life sciences. Cellular uptake of QDs, location and translocation as well as any biological consequence, such as cytotoxicity, stimulated a lot of scientific research in this area. Several studies pointed to the cytotoxic effect against micoorganisms. In this mini-review, we overviewed the synthesis and optical properties of QDs, and its advantages and bioapplications in the studies about microorganisms such as protozoa, bacteria, fungi and virus.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 5
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 202: Floating Photocatalysts for Passive Solar Degradation of Naphthenic Acids in Oil Sands Process-Affected Water Water doi: 10.3390/w10020202 Authors: Tim Leshuk Harish Krishnakumar Diogo de Oliveira Livera Frank Gu Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), generated from bitumen extraction in the Canadian oil sands, may require treatment to enable safe discharge to receiving watersheds, as dissolved naphthenic acids (NAs) and other acid extractable organics (AEO), identified as the primary toxic components of OSPW, are environmentally persistent and poorly biodegradable. However, conventional advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are impractically expensive to treat the volumes of OSPW stockpiled in the Athabasca region. Here we prepared floating photocatalysts (FPCs) by immobilizing TiO2 on glass microbubbles, such that the composite particles float at the air-water interface for passive solar photocatalysis. The FPCs were demonstrated to outperform P25 TiO2 nanoparticles in degrading AEO in raw OSPW under natural sunlight and gentle mixing conditions. The FPCs were also found to be recyclable for multiple uses through simple flotation and skimming. This paper thus demonstrates the concept of a fully passive AOP that may be scalable to oil sands water treatment challenges, achieving efficient NA reduction solely through the energy provided by sunlight and natural mixing processes (wind and waves).
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 6
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 1118: On the Performance of Thin-Walled Crash Boxes Joined by Forming Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11071118 Authors: Diogo F. M. Silva Carlos M. A. Silva Ivo M. F. Bragança Chris V. Nielsen Luis M. Alves Paulo A. F. Martins A new joining by forming process that combines lancing and shearing with sheet-bulk compression is utilized to assemble thin-walled crash boxes utilized as energy absorbers. Process design and fabrication of the new crash boxes are analyzed by finite elements and experimentation. Axial crush tests were performed to compare the overall crashworthiness performance of the new crash boxes against that of conventional crash boxes assembled by resistance spot-welding. Results show that the joining process is a good alternative to resistance spot-welding because the new crash boxes can absorb the same crushing energy, and because the new process helps to overcome typical manufacturing problems of welding.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 7
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2015-10-31
    Description: Considering water resource scarcity and uncertainty in climate and demand futures, decision-makers require techniques for sustainability analysis in resource management. Through unclear definitions of “sustainability”, however, traditional indices for resource evaluation propose options of limited flexibility by adopting static climate and demand scenarios, limiting analysis variables to a particular water-use group and time. This work proposes a robust, multivariate, dynamic sustainability evaluation technique and corresponding performance indicator called Measure of Sustainability (MoS) for resource management that is more adapted to withstand future parameter variation. The range of potential future climate and demand scenarios is simulated through a calibrated hydrological model of Copiapó, Chile, a case study example of an arid watershed under extreme natural and anthropogenic water stresses. Comparing MoS and cost rankings of proposed water management schemes, this paper determines that the traditional evaluation method not only underestimates future water deficits, but also espouses solutions without considering uncertainties in supply and demand. Given the uncertainty of the future and the dependence of resources upon climate and market trajectories, the MoS methodology proposes solutions that, while perhaps are not the most optimal, are robust to variations in future parameter values and are thus the best water management options in a stochastic natural world.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 8
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Entropy
    Publication Date: 2016-02-07
    Description: We developed a geometrical model to represent the thermodynamic concepts of exergy and anergy. The model leads to multi-scale energy lines (correlons) that we characterised by fractal dimension and entropy analyses. A specific attention will be paid to overlapping points, rising interesting remarks about trans-scale dynamics of heat flows.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 9
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2016-07-04
    Description: Attempting to apply the in situ production of PhSeZnSePh to the synthesis of selenoesters, an unexpected reaction involving the solvent (tetrahydrofuran) was observed and studied. We reported here some evidences about the mechanism and the possibility to control the chemoselectivity of this new reaction that afforded the formation of interesting selenoderivatives in which the selenium moiety and the carboxylic one are spaced by four carbon units.
    Print ISSN: 2090-9063
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 10
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2016-06-21
    Description: Land suitability analysis is employed to evaluate the appropriateness of land for a particular purpose whilst integrating both qualitative and quantitative inputs, which can be continuous in nature. However, in agricultural modelling there is often a disregard of this contiguous aspect. Therefore, some parametric procedures for suitability analysis compartmentalise units into defined membership classes. This imposition of crisp boundaries neglects the continuous formations found throughout nature and overlooks differences and inherent uncertainties found in the modelling. This research will compare two approaches to suitability analysis over three differing methods. The primary approach will use an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while the other approach will use a Fuzzy AHP over two methods; Fitted Fuzzy AHP and Nested Fuzzy AHP. Secondary to this, each method will be assessed into how it behaves in a climate change scenario to understand and highlight the role of uncertainties in model conceptualisation and structure. Outputs and comparisons between each method, in relation to area, proportion of membership classes and spatial representation, showed that fuzzy modelling techniques detailed a more robust and continuous output. In particular the Nested Fuzzy AHP was concluded to be more pertinent, as it incorporated complex modelling techniques, as well as the initial AHP framework. Through this comparison and assessment of model behaviour, an evaluation of each methods predictive capacity and relevance for decision-making purposes in agricultural applications is gained.
    Electronic ISSN: 2220-9964
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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