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  • Other Sources  (56)
  • Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)  (32)
  • Amsterdam: Elsevier  (24)
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  • Other Sources  (56)
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  • 1
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Three billion people cook their food on biomass-fueled fires. This practice contributes to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions from cooking, however, cookstoves made from modern materials and distributed through energy-intensive supply chains have higher embodied CO2-equivalent than traditional cookstoves. No studies exist examining whether lifetime emissions savings from fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves offset embodied emissions, and if so, by what margin. This paper is a complete life cycle inventory of 'The Berkeley-Darfur Stove,' disseminated in Sudan by the non-profit Potential Energy. We estimate the embodied CO2-equivalent in the cookstove associated with materials, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life is 17kg of CO2-equivalent. Assuming a mix of 55% non-renewable biomass and 45% renewable biomass, five years of service, and a conservative 35% reduction in fuel use relative to a three-stone fire, the cookstove will offset 7.5 tonnes of CO2-equivalent. A one-to-one replacement of a three-stone fire with the cookstove will save roughly 440 times more CO2-equivalent than it 'costs' to create and distribute. Over its five-year life, we estimate the total use-phase emissions of the cookstove to be 13.5 tonnes CO2-equivalent, and the use-phase accounts for 99.9% of cookstove life cycle emissions. The dominance of use-phase emissions illuminate two important insights: (1) without a rigorous program to monitor use-phase emissions, an accurate estimate of life cycle emissions from biomass cookstoves is not possible, and (2) improving a cookstove's avoided emissions relies almost exclusively on reducing use-phase emissions even if use-phase reductions come at the cost of substantially increased non-use-phase emissions.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: Agreement is developing among agricultural scientists on the emerging inability of agriculture to meet growing global food demands. Changes in trends of weather conditions projected by global climate models will challenge physiological limits of crops and exacerbate the global food challenge by 2050. These climate- and constraint-driven crop production challenges are interconnected within a complex global economy, where diverse factors add to price volatility and food scarcity. Our scenarios of the impact of climate change on food security through 2050 for internationally traded crops show that climate change does not threaten near-term US food security due to the availability of adaptation strategies. However, as climate continues to change beyond 2050 current adaptation measures will not be sufficient to meet growing food demand. Climate scenarios for higher-level carbon emissions exacerbate the food shortfall, although uncertainty in projections of future precipitation is a limitation to impact studies.
    Keywords: Q17 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; climate change ; food security ; crop production ; United States ; Klimawandel ; Nahrungsmittelkonsum ; Agrarproduktion ; USA
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: The UK national minimum wage (NMW) is age-specific with the most important threshold at the age of 22 (lowered to 21 from 2010 onwards) when workers become eligible for the adult rate. The authors estimate the impact of this threshold on employment by means of a regression discontinuity analysis. Because this threshold is known in advance, they investigate the presence of discontinuities in both the level and the slope of employment probabilities at different ages around the threshold. Their results indicate that turning 22 does not significantly change the employment probability. However, they find a significant change in the slope of the probability of being employed around one year before, suggesting a smooth deterioration of employment probability before turning 22 rather than a sudden change at a particular age. This finding is confirmed by a difference-in-difference analysis. However, no such effect can be found during the period preceding the introduction of the NMW.
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; employment ; young workers ; regression discontinuity design
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: In 2011, the Annual Report of the Editor of the American Economic Review reported that the journal's data-code archive was functioning well, and no changes were made to the archive rules. This was based on an audit of the archive that the Editor had commissioned. In point of fact, all was not well with the archive: the archive did not support the publication of reproducible research. The rules for the archive should have been changed and were not; thus the American Economic Review continued to publish articles that were not reproducible. The cause of reproducible research was set back many years. Currently it appears that the AER intends to reproduce articles prior to publication; this would be a horrible mistake.
    Keywords: B40 ; ddc:330 ; replication ; reproducible research
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: The projected changes in planted area, yield per area, net exports/imports and priced for five major agricultural crops in South Africa were simulated using the projections of four Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under three socio-economic scenarios. The GCM runs were those undertaken for the IPCC fourth assessment report. They show consistent strong warming over the subcontinent, but disagree with respect to future precipitation, from slight wetting (particularly on the eastern side) to overall slight drying. The future crop yields were simulated using the DSSAT crop model suite. The planted area, commodity prices and net exports were simulated using the IMPACT global food trade model. The results indicate slightly rising to stable yields per unit area up to 2050, despite climate change, largely due to the inbuilt assumption of ongoing agronomic and genetic improvements. The planted area remains fairly constant in both location and size. As a result of increasing food demand, net exports decline (i.e. imports increase) substantially, and so do prices due to simultaneous increases in global demand. The effects on food security in South Africa, measured as average calorific intake per person and malnutrition in children under the age of five, depends more on the assumptions regarding population and GDP growth than on climate change, since the study assumes that local shortages will be balanced by increased imports, if they are affordable. Thus the vulnerability to food insecurity at family and national level increases in the future under all but the most optimistic development scenarios, and is exacerbated by climate change, especially through global-scale, market-related mechanisms. Policies to increase local agricultural production, decrease its climate sensitivity and facilitate access to international markets are indicated, along with efforts to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions.
    Keywords: Q55 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; climate change ; crop production ; scenarios ; food security ; futures ; modeling
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2013-08-16
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 7
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: The effect of wine ratings on pricing has been a question for wine consumers for some time. Ultimately, wine preference, and thus how one judges a wine, is a subjective endeavor. Wine professionals have long rated wines and those published ratings have some effect on consumer sales. Previously, wine studies have found that there is a connection between rating and price. This study looks to try to verify that connection through insuring that best fit model development is used. For the first time in wine research, the authors have utilized Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare different models and more dynamic hypothesis testing to explore the relationship between ratings and prices of wines. In the end, it was confirmed that there is a link, and the use of AIC also helped to not only confirm previous findings, but also to identify a new concern in wine ratings.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Akaike Information Criteria ; Model testing ; Wine ; Wine rating
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 8
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: Despite the high likelihood of infection and substantial yield losses from trunk diseases, many California practitioners wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, and application of pruning-wound protectants) until after disease symptoms appear in the vineyard at around 10 years old. We evaluate net benefits from adoption of these practices before symptoms appear in young Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards and after they become apparent in mature vineyards to identify economic hurdles to early adoption. We simulate winegrape production in select counties of California and find widespread benefits from early adoption, increasing vineyard profitable lifespans, in some cases, by close to 50%. However, hurdles may result from uncertainty about the cost and returns from adoption, labor constraints, long time lags in benefits from early adoption, growers' perceived probabilities of infection, and their discount rate. Development of extension resources communicating benefits and potential hurdles to growers likely reduces uncertainty, increasing early adoption. Improvements in efficacy of preventative practices, perhaps by detecting when pathogen spores are released into the vineyard, will increase early adoption. Lastly, practice cost reductions will increase early adoption too, especially when the time it takes for adoption to payoff and infection uncertainty are influential in adoption decisions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Early adoption ; Grapevine trunk diseases ; Plant-disease management ; Preventative practices
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Food security in China affects the livelihood and well-being of one-fifth of the world population. Climate change is now affecting agriculture and food production in every country of the world. Here the authors present the IMPACT model results on yield, production, and net trade of major crops (wheat, rice, and maize) in China, and on daily calorie availability as an overall indicator of food security under climate change scenarios and socio-economic pathways in 2050. The obtained results show that wheat, maize, and rice yields will increase by 17%, 45%, and 15%, alongside price increases of 60%, 100%, and 40%, respectively, during 2010-2050. Crop production is projected to increase by 23%, 70%, and 3% reaching 123, 240, and 125 million tons for wheat, maize, and rice, respectively, in 2050. The results also show that China will remain a major importer of maize at 20 million tons per year, but turn from a net importer of rice (5 million tons per year in 2010) to a net exporter in 2020 (5-9 million tons per year by 2050), while becoming a self-sufficient consumer of wheat by 2050. The outcomes of calorie availability suggest that China will be able to maintain a level of at least 3,000 kilocalories per day through 2010-2050. Climate change has relatively little effect on calorie availability within a pathway scenario.The authors conclude that Chinese agriculture is relatively resilient to climate change. Chinese food security by 2050 will unlikely be compromised in the context of climate change. The major challenge to food security, however, will rise from increasing demand coupled with regional disparities in the adaptive capacity to climate change.
    Keywords: Q56 ; Q18 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Climate change ; food security ; scenario ; adaptation ; mitigation ; policy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Global climate change presents long-term risks to agriculture. In general, global climate change is expected to positively affect Russian agriculture. In high and middle latitudes, global warming would expand the growing season. Acreages of agricultural crops may expand toward the north, although yields would likely be lower due to less fertile soil. However, in the south there is a possibility of drier climate, which has a negative impact on crop yields and livestock productivity. In addition, climate change is expected to increase the scarcity of water resources and encourage weed and pest proliferation, and it is expected to increase the short-term risks associated with an increase in extreme weather events and natural disasters. This paper uses data on current conditions to simulate future scenarios and examine possible impacts on crop production in the Russian Federation. It also considers adaptive measures for agriculture in response to climate change.
    Keywords: Q17 ; Q18 ; Q24 ; Q25 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; climate change ; agriculture ; food security ; IMPACT model
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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