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  • Other Sources  (53)
  • Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)  (53)
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  • Other Sources  (53)
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  • 1
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    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This multidisciplinary study adopts econometric analysis for investigating how different characteristics determine the choice of the language used in the signs of a shopping street. We work with a dataset containing about 200 observations collected in the main shopping streets of the cities of Donostia (Spain) and Ljouwert (The Netherlands). The results corroborate the important assumption that multilingualism and the choice of the language (even in a street sign) is an individual and a social preference. Therefore, understanding individuals' linguistic preference structures is preliminary to the target and design of proper linguistic and social policies.
    Keywords: C010 ; R200 ; Z130 ; ddc:330 ; Linguistic Diversity ; Street Sign ; Probit Model ; Linguistic Landscape ; Sprache ; Baskisch ; Spanisch ; Niederländisch ; Sprachpolitik ; Kultursoziologie ; Public Choice ; Schätzung ; Spanien ; Niederlande
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: We adopt a general equilibrium approach in order to measure the effects of recent immigration on the Western German labor market, looking at both wage and employment effects. Using the Regional File of the IAB Employment Subsample for the period 1987-2001, we find that the substantial immigration of the 1990's had no adverse effects on native wages and employment levels. It had instead adverse employment and wage effects on previous waves of immigrants. This stems from the fact that, after controlling for education and experience levels, native and migrant workers appear to be imperfect substitutes whereas new and old immigrants exhibit perfect substitutability. Our analysis suggests that if the German labor market were as 'flexible' as the UK labor market, it would be more efficient in dealing with the effects of immigration.
    Keywords: E24 ; F22 ; J61 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Immigration ; Skill Complementarities ; Employment ; Wages ; Internationale Arbeitsmobilität ; Einwanderung ; Ausländische Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Lohnniveau ; Beschäftigung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: The approach of using existing data on economic values of local ecosystem services for an assessment of these values at a larger geographical scale can be called 'scaling up'. In a scaling-up exercise, economic values from a particular study site are transferred to another geographical setting, for instance to the regional, national or global scale. This paper proposes a methodology for scaling up ecosystem service values to a European level, assesses the availability of data for conducting this method, and illustrates the procedure with a case study on wetland values. The proposed methodology makes use of meta-analysis to produce a value function that is subsequently applied to individual European wetland sites. Site-specific, study-specific and context-specific variables are used to define a price vector that captures differences between sites and over time. The proposed method is shown to be practicable and to produce reasonably reliable aggregate value estimates.
    Keywords: C81 ; Q24 ; Q57 ; ddc:330 ; Ecosystem Services ; Value Transfer ; Meta-Analysis ; Wetland Values
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper reports an original economic valuation of the impact of climate change on the provision of forest regulating services in Europe. To the authors' knowledge the current paper represents the first systematic attempt to estimate human well-being losses with respect to changes in biodiversity and forest regulating services that are directly driven by climate change. First, selected 34 European countries are grouped by their latitude intervals to capture the differentiated regional effects of forests in response to climate change. Moreover, the future trends of forest areas and stocked carbon in 2050 are projected through the construction and simulation of global circulation models such as HADMC3 following four different future developing paths described by the four IPCC scenarios. Finally, the valuation exercise is anchored in an ecosystem service based approach, involving the use of general circulation models and integrated assessment models. Our findings address two dimensions in the evaluation of climate impacts on European forests: Firstly, future projections yield different states of the world depending upon the IPCC scenario adopted. Secondly, spatial issues matter in an assessment of the distributional impacts of climate change, as these impacts are not distributed in a uniform way across the European countries under consideration.
    Keywords: Q23 ; Q51 ; Q57 ; ddc:330 ; Economic Valuation ; Forest Ecosystem ; Carbon Sequestration ; Climate Change Impacts ; Klimaveränderung ; Umwelt ; Forstwirtschaft ; Umweltpolitik ; Kohlenstoffsenke ; Regulierung ; Bewertung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: We suggest the use of an Internet job-search indicator (the Google Index, GI) as the best leading indicator to predict the US unemployment rate. We perform a deep out-of-sample forecasting comparison analyzing many models that adopt both our preferred leading indicator (GI), the more standard initial claims or combinations of both. We find that models augmented with the GI outperform the traditional ones in predicting the monthly unemployment rate, even in most state-level forecasts and in comparison with the Survey of Professional Forecasters.
    Keywords: C22 ; C53 ; E27 ; E37 ; J60 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Google Econometrics ; Forecast Comparison ; Keyword Search ; US Unemployment ; Time Series Models
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper addresses the issue of whether the powers of monitoring compliance and allocating tradeable emissions allowances within a federation of countries should be appointed to a unique federal regulator or decentralized to several local regulators. To this end, we develop a two stage game played by environmental regulator(s) and the polluting industries of two countries. Regulator(s) choose the amount of emission allowances to be issued and set the level of monitoring effort to achieve full compliance, while regulated firms choose actual emissions and the number of permits to be held. We identify various, possibly conflicting, spillovers among states in a decentralized setting. We show that cost advantage in favor of local regulators is not sufficient to justify decentralization. Nevertheless, cost differential in monitoring violations can imply lower emissions and greater welfare under a decentralized institutional setting than under a centralized one. However, while a better environmental quality under decentralization is a sufficient condition for higher welfare under the same regime, it is not also a necessary condition.
    Keywords: F18 ; K42 ; Q53 ; ddc:330 ; Emissions Trading ; Environmental Federalism ; Enforcement ; Monitoring Cost
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: The rationale for conservation and creation of wetlands stems from the recognition of both their ecological and economic values. This paper examines the welfare impacts of goods and services provided by wetlands. We collected 385 estimates of the economic value of 181 natural and man-made wetlands from 167 studies worldwide. The resulting database is less biased towards North America than previous reviews of the literature. The relative importance of characteristics of the valuation study, of the wetland site, and of the socio-economic and geographical context is estimated by means of a meta-regression analysis of wetland values. Provision of amenities, flood control and storm buffering, and water quality improvement are the most highly valued wetland services. The relevance of the socio-economic and geographical context clearly emerges from the analysis and, in particular, the proximity to other wetland sites is negatively correlated with valuations. An analysis of the effect of environmental stress on wetland value shows that the latter increases with stress from human development activities and uses. In addition to the basic meta-regression model, the influence of authorship effects and of the geographic regions is examined by means of a multi-level approach. A second extended meta-regression model including cross-effects shows that the valuations of specific services vary according to the type of wetland producing them.
    Keywords: C81 ; Q24 ; ddc:330 ; Constructed Ecosystems ; Economic Valuation ; Man-Made Wetlands ; Meta-Regression ; Wetland Values
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is built on a conceptual framework that links biodiversity to the services ecosystems provide to society. Based on this framework, we first compile market and non-market forest valuation studies and, secondly, explore the potential of an econometric modeling exercise by conducting a world wide meta-analysis. This exercise aims to highlight the mapping of biodiversity indicators and assesses their respective role on the valuation exercise. Our results show that biodiversity loss is having an effect on forest ecosystem values. In addition, these effects reveal to be dependent on the type of services and global geo-climatic regions.
    Keywords: Q57 ; ddc:330 ; Millennium Ecosystems Approach ; Biodiversity Loss ; Meta-Analysis ; Market Valuation ; Non-Market Valuation ; Forests
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: By using ad hoc value transfer protocols, this paper offers a methodological contribution and provides accurate per hectare estimates of the economic value of some selected ecosystem services for all forest biomes in the world, identified following the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment taxonomy MEA. The research also estimates potential total economic losses from policy inaction in year 2050. Final results show that total losses are significant. The total figure is €78 billion, the greatest losses coming from North America and Mexico, followed by Africa, Russia and some Asiatic countries. Most of this loss is attributable to provisioning services and carbon sequestration, while only a minor part is due to loss of cultural services. In terms of biomes the greatest losses are from boreal and warm mixed forests, followed by tropical forests. These results may be surprising to some who argue that it is the loss of tropical forests, particularly the Amazon, that is the most significant. A detailed analysis, shows, however, that this is not the case. The best estimates point to greater losses in areas where use and non-use values are highest, which includes North America.
    Keywords: O13 ; Q23 ; Q26 ; Q51 ; Q54 ; Q57 ; ddc:330 ; Forest ; Ecosystem Services ; Biodiversity ; Valuation ; Value Transfer
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This analysis provides an example of how biodiversity can be measured by means of different indicators, and how the latter can be used to assess the influence of the biodiversity profile of a region on the tourism flows towards it. Previous studies have considered environmental amenities as one of the determinants of tourism destination choice. The central hypothesis of this paper is that the destination's biodiversity profile can be considered as a key component of environmental amenities. The main objective of this study is to propose a different perspective on this topic, considering the role of biodiversity on tourists' choice of destination and duration of stay. Domestic Irish tourist flows have been chosen as a case study. The first step of the analysis required the construction of biodiversity indicators suitable for developing a biodiversity profile of each Irish county. Subsequently, a model was developed so as to explain the total number of nights spent in any location as a function of a set of explanatory variables including information about the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, biodiversity and the landscape profile of the county of destination and features of the trip. Results show that most of the biodiversity and landscape indicators included in the analysis turn out to be statistically significant in determining tourists' choices regarding the duration of their trip. As a result, policies pursuing biodiversity conservation appear to have a positive impact on the revenue of regional tourism.
    Keywords: Q57 ; ddc:330 ; Species Diversity ; Habitat Fragmentation ; Landscape Diversity ; Trip Demand ; Indicators ; Ecosystem Services ; Human Well-Being
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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