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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Meningitis Meningo-encephalitisBrucella ; Neurobrucellosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon disease in children. The authors present two cases of brucellar meningo-encephalitis. Headache and vomiting were the main complaints and one child had also some behavioural disturbance as well as papilloedema and sixth cranial nerve palsy. The clinical diagnosis was suggested by epidemiological data in both cases. Blood and CSF cultures confirmed brucellar aetiology in one of the cases and positive serum and CSF specific antibodies in both. Clinical course was favourable after treatment with doxycycline, rifampicin and streptomycin. No relapse occurred and there were no sequelae.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Aesthetic plastic surgery 23 (1999), S. 151-154 
    ISSN: 1432-5241
    Keywords: Key words: Omphaloplasty—Navel reconstruction—Reconstruction of the umbilicus—Bladder exstrophy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The authors review several proposed approaches to neoomphaloplasty, with emphasis on the use of three flaps anchored to the fascia, allowing the exposed central area to heal unaided. The procedure is straightforward and can be performed singly or during abdominoplasty. Results are both cosmetic and natural-looking.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 24 (1999), S. 1067-1074 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Adenosine A2 receptors ; NECA binding ; guanine nucleotides ; glutamate analog ; cAMP ; chicks
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Binding properties of the subtypes of adenosine A2 receptors in membrane preparations and the effects of adenosine receptor ligands on cAMP accumulation in slices from the optic tectum of neonatal chicks have been investigated. [3H]2-[4-(2-p-carboxyethyl)phenylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxaminoadenosine (CGS 21680), a selective ligand for adenosine A2a receptors, did not bind to optic tectal membranes, as observed with rat striatal membranes. CGS 21680 also did not induce cyclic AMP accumulation in optic tectum slices. However, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), 2-chloro-adenosine or adenosine induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase on cyclic AMP accumulation in this preparation. [3H]NECA binds to fresh non-washed-membranes obtained from optic tectum of chicks, displaying one population of binding sites, which can be displaced by NECA, 8-phenyltheophylline, 2-chloro-adenosine, but is not affected by CGS 21680. The estimated KD value was 400.90 ± 80.50 nM and the Bmax was estimated to be 2.51 ± 0.54 pmol/mg protein. Guanine nucleotides, which modulate G-proteins activity intracellularly, are also involved in the inhibition of glutamate responses by acting extracellularly. Moreover, we have previously reported that guanine nucleotides potentiate, while glutamate inhibits, adenosine-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in slices from optic tectum of chicks. However, the guanine nucleotides, GMP or GppNHp and the metabotropic glutamate receptors agonist, 1S,3R-ACPD did not alter the [3H]NECA binding observed in fresh non-washed-membranes. Therefore, the adenosine A2 receptor found in the optic tectum must be the adenosine A2b receptor which is available only in fresh membrane preparations, and its not modulated by guanine nucleotides or glutamate analogs.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 70 (1980), S. 173-177 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Endogenous opiates ; Beta-endorphin ; Amnesic effects ; Amnesic mechanisms ; Memory consolidation ; Non-associative factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The endogenous opiate peptide, beta-endorphin (0.4, 1.0, 2.0, and 10.0 μg/kg) was injected IP into rats immediately after training in a shuttle avoidance task, and its effect on memory retention was evaluated in test sessions carried out 24 h later. The drug was found to cause retrograde amnesia, the ED50 being 1.0 μg/kg. Beta-endorphin immunoreactivity was measured in the hypothalamus and rest of the brain of rats submitted to training, or test sessions of shuttle avoidance learning, pseudoconditioning in the shuttle-box, tones alone, or foot-shocks alone. After training in any of the four paradigms, there was a marked (46–60%) depletion of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in the rest of the brain. No changes were detected in the hypothalamus or after test sessions. The loss of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity may be attributed to release of this substance caused by the stimuli used for training. From the present findings, as well as previous observations on the memory-facilitating influence of the opiate receptor antagonist, naloxone, it is concluded that there is a physiological amnesic mechanism mediated by beta-endorphin (and perhaps other opoid peptides as well), which is triggered by the non-associative factors present in the various forms of learning.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 7 (1996), S. 77-83 
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Fibroblasts from normal human skin were cultured for a period of 21 days in the absence or in the presence of metal ions. The effects of stainless steel (SS) corrosion products were compared to the effects of iron, chromium and nickel ions used either separately (Fe, Cr, or Ni solutions) or combined (Fe+Cr+Ni solution). At several periods of time (4, 7, 14 and 21 days) the cell cultures were analysed for the following parameters: (a) metal ion accumulation by atomic absorption spectrometry; (b) cell morphology and viability by the neutral red assay; (c) cell proliferation by DNA assessment, and enzyme activity by both (d) MTT reduction and (e) acid phosphatase activity. Results showed that SS-corrosion products and the corresponding metal ions combined at the same concentrations, Fe+Cr+Ni solution, had opposite effects on fibroblast cultures. In fact, SS-corrosion products caused no apparent effects on cell morphology nor on cell proliferation whereas Fe+Cr+Ni solution stimulated both neutral red uptake and cell proliferation. The enzymatic assays showed that SS-corrosion products caused inhibition of both MTT reduction and acid phosphatase activity in contrast to Fe+Cr+Ni solution which stimulated their activity. Furthermore, in all biological parameters studied, a strong association was observed between the effects of Fe+Cr+Ni solution and Cr alone, suggesting that Cr was the metal ion mostly involved in the stimulatory effects of the combined solution.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 23 (1998), S. 519-524 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glutamate ; excitotoxicity ; rat hippocampus ; guanine nucleotides ; reactive oxygen species ; chemiluminescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Glutamate significantly increased levels of spontaneous chemiluminescence (CL) in rat hippocampal slices incubated under hypoxic conditions. Although it has been previously shown that guanine nucleotides (GN) displace glutamate from several of its receptors, in our study only GMP, as well as the glutamate antagonist MK-801, was able to reverse the increase in CL provoked by glutamate. On the other hand, not only GTP or Gpp(NH)p failed to reverse the action of glutamate, but they increased CL production like glutamate. This effect of GTP/Gpp(NH)p was also reversed by GMP. We concluded that, under neurotoxic conditions, GMP acted as an antagonist and GTP or Gpp(NH)p acted as agonists of glutamate. These results reinforced the evidence of the existence of extracellular site(s) for GN and indicated a possible role for GN in excitotoxicity.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 25 (2000), S. 181-188 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Adenosine ; guanine nucleotides ; GMP ; adenosine A2 receptors ; glutamate ; hippocampus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Guanine nucleotides (GN) have been implicated in many intracellular mechanisms. Extracellular actions, probably as glutamate receptor antagonists, have also been recently attributed to these compounds. GN may have a neuroprotective role by inhibiting excitotoxic events evoked by glutamate. Effects of extracellular GN on adenosine-evoked cellular responses have also been reported. However, the exact mechanism of such interaction is not known. In the present study, we showed that GN potentiated adenosine-induced cAMP accumulation in slices of hippocampus from young rats. However, neither GMP nor the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, 1S,3R-ACPD, inhibited the binding of the adenosine receptor agonist [3H]NECA (when binding to adenosine A2 receptors), or the binding of the adenosine A2a receptor agonist [3H]CGS 21680 in hippocampal membrane preparations. GppNHp, probably by interacting with G-proteins, decreased [3H]CGS 21680 binding. [3H]GMP binding was assayed in order to evaluate the GN sites which are not G-proteins. [3H]GMP binding was inhibited by GMP and GppNHp, but not by 1S,3R-ACPD. The interaction of endogenous adenosine with the GMP-binding sites was determined by incubating membranes in the presence or absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA). NECA, CADO, CGS 21680 and CPA (only at the highest concentration used) increased GMP binding in the presence of ADA. However, in the absence of ADA, the control levels of GMP binding were as high as in the presence of added ADA plus adenosine agonists, indicating that endogenous adenosine modulates the binding of GMP. If this site has a neuroprotective role, adenosine may be increasing its neuromodulator and proposed protective action.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 25 (2000), S. 211-215 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glutamate ; guanine nucleotides ; antinoception ; naturally-occurring compounds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Glutamate is to be considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter and glutamatergic antagonists present antinoceptive activity. In this study we investigated the effects of the naturally occurring antinociceptive compounds rutin, geraniin and quercetine extracted from Phyllanthus, as well as the diterpene jatrophone, extracted from Jatropha elliptica on the binding of [3H]glutamate and [3H]GMP-PNP [a GTP analogue which binds to extracellular site(s), modulating the glutamatergic transmission] in rat brain membrane. Jatrophone inhibited [3H]glutamate binding and geraniin inhibited [3H]GMP-PNP binding. Quercetine inhibited the binding of both ligands. These results may indicate a neurochemical parameter possibly related to the antinoceptive activity of these natural compounds.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 22 (1997), S. 1507-1510 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glutamate ; binding ; anticonvulsant ; γ-decanolactone ; epilepsy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Even though antiepileptic drugs can afford a reasonably satisfactory treatment for 80% of diagnosed patients, chronic intractable epilepsy still affects a significant number of people and more effective and less harmful antiepileptic drugs are needed. Previous studies have shown that γ-decanolactone has dose-dependent sedative effects, including hypnotic, anticonvulsant and hypothermic properties in mice. The present study reports an inhibitory effect of γ-decanolactone on glutamate binding (96.8% with 5 mM) in rat cortex membranes. The non competitive nature of glutamate binding inhibition as a neurochemical correlate of the anticonvulsant activity of γ-decanolactone may be a relevant mode of action for further drug development.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 22 (1997), S. 181-187 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glutamate ; [3H]glutamate-binding ; guanine nucleotides ; adenylate cyclase ; G-proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract GMP-PNP, a non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+, so that the binding is stable even after exhaustive washings. This property was exploited to prepare membrane samples of rat brain where G-protein GTP-binding sites were saturated with GMP-PNP. Experiments carried out with these membranes showed that GTP, GMP-PNP, GDP-S and GMP (1 mM) inhibit the sodium-independent [3H]glutamate binding by 30–40% [F(4,40) = 5.9; p 〈 .001], whereas only GMP-PNP activates adenylate cyclase activity [F(6,42) = 3.56; p 〈 .01]. The inhibition of sodium-independent [3H]glutamate binding occurred in the absence of Mg2+. These findings suggest that guanine nucleotides may inhibit glutamate binding and activate adenylate cyclase through distinct mechanisms by acting on different sites.
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