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  • 1
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    SpringerOpen
    Publication Date: 2017-03-02
    Description: This work presents the homotopy perturbation transform method for nonlinear fractional partial differential equations of the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional operator. Perturbative expansion polynomials are consider...
    Print ISSN: 1687-1839
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-1847
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by SpringerOpen
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-04-03
    Description: Neutrophils are one the earliest, crucial innate defenses against innumerable pathogens. Their main microbicidal activities include phagocytosis and degranulation, with many pharmacologically active molecules contributing to inflammation. Recently, a novel antimicrobial mechanism was discovered; the Neutrophil Extracelullar Traps (NETs) formed by extrusion of DNA and associated molecules (histones, elastase, antimicrobial peptides, among others) which trap and kill microorganisms. Since NETs were recently described, research has focused on their induction and microbicidal properties, and recently on disease involvement. However, the functional consequences of NETs interacting with other immune cells, either resident or recruited during early inflammation, have not been assessed.We therefore investigated the consequences of exposing two major APCs, macrophages (Mfs) and conventional Dendritic Cells (cDCs) to NETs. Our data revealed that at early times (30min), both Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) showed induction of important costimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86). Unexpectedly, however, at later times (6 and 24 hours) NETs apparently triggered a cell death process in these APCs by a caspase- and Apoptosis induced factor (AIF)-dependent pathway, suggesting mitochondrial damage. By rhodamine-123 labelling we found that in both APCs, relatively prolonged exposure to NETs or their components importantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed mitochondrial alterations in both APCs.Our results would suggest that early in inflammation, NETs can activate the two main APCs (Mfs and cDCs), but as the process continues, NETs can then initiate apoptosis of these cells through mitochondrial harm. Conceivable, this “late” induction of cell death in these two APCs might start limiting an ongoing inflammatory process to control it.
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-1801
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: This article proposes non-linearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method (NDLT-HPM) to find approximate solutions for linear and nonlinear differential equations with finite boundary conditions. We will see that the method is particularly relevant in case of equations with nonhomogeneous non-polynomial terms. Comparing figures between approximate and exact solutions we show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-1801
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by SpringerOpen
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  • 4
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    SpringerOpen
    Publication Date: 2015-02-11
    Description: The systemic and organ-specific human fibrotic disorders collectively represent one of the most serious health problems world-wide causing a large proportion of the total world population mortality. The molecular pathways involved in their pathogenesis are complex and despite intensive investigations have not been fully elucidated. Whereas chronic inflammatory cell infiltration is universally present in fibrotic lesions, the central role of monocytes and macrophages as regulators of inflammation and fibrosis has only recently become apparent. However, the precise mechanisms involved in the contribution of monocytes/macrophages to the initiation, establishment, or progression of the fibrotic process remain largely unknown. Several monocyte and macrophage subpopulations have been identified, with certain phenotypes promoting inflammation whereas others display profibrotic effects. Given the unmet need for effective treatments for fibroproliferative diseases and the crucial regulatory role of monocyte/macrophage subpopulations in fibrogenesis, the development of therapeutic strategies that target specific monocyte/macrophage subpopulations has become increasingly attractive. We will provide here an overview of the current understanding of the role of monocyte/macrophage phenotype subpopulations in animal models of tissue fibrosis and in various systemic and organ-specific human fibrotic diseases. Furthermore, we will discuss recent approaches to the design of effective anti-fibrotic therapeutic interventions by targeting the phenotypic differences identified between the various monocyte and macrophage subpopulations.
    Electronic ISSN: 2001-1326
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by SpringerOpen
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  • 5
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    SpringerOpen
    Publication Date: 2014-04-29
    Description: Purpose: Urinary pH is an important factor linked to renal stone disease and a useful marker in the treatment of urolithiasis. Although the gold standard for measuring urinary pH utilizes a glass electrode and a pH meter, at present dipstick testing is largely used to estimate urinary pH. However, the accuracy and precision of this method may be insufficient for making clinical decisions in patients with lithiasis. The aim of this study is to describe a new device for urinary pH testing. Methods: The device includes a pH sensor based on differential measurement of an ISFET-REFET pair. The drawbacks associated with this type of configuration, namely short lifetime and manual fabrication, have been overcome in the prototype. An automatic one point calibration is performed when turning on the system. Two buffer solutions were utilized to determine the intra- and inter-day precision of the device. The pH of 30 fresh human urine samples was measured using a pH-meter, a dipstick and the new electronic device. Results: In some cases, dipstick measurements differed from those of the pH meter by more than 0.40 units, a clinically relevant discrepancy, whereas none of the measurements made with the new electronic device differed from the results of the pH-meter by more than 0.1 pH units. Conclusions: This new electronic device has the possibility to be used by stone-formers to control their urinary pH at home, increasing the tools available for stone prevention and prophylaxis.
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-1801
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by SpringerOpen
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: In this article, Perturbation Method (PM) is employed to obtain a handy approximate solution to thesteady state nonlinear reaction diffusion equation containing a nonlinear term related to Michaelis-Menten of the enzymatic reaction. Comparing graphics between the approximate and exact solutions,it will be shown that the PM method is quite efficient.
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-1801
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by SpringerOpen
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-04-15
    Description: IntroductionDespite drastic increases in antipsychotic prescribing in youth, data are still limited regarding their safety in this vulnerable population, necessitating additional tools for capturing long-term, real world data. Methods: We present SENTIA (SafEty of NeurolepTics in Infancy and Adolescence; https://SENTIA.es), an online registry created in 2010 to track antipsychotic adverse effects in Spanish youth
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-1801
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by SpringerOpen
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  • 8
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    SpringerOpen
    Publication Date: 2016-11-06
    Description: This paper presents alternative representations to traditional calculus of the Euler-Lagrangian equations, in the alternative representations these equations contain fractional operators. In this work, we cons...
    Print ISSN: 1687-1839
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-1847
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by SpringerOpen
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  • 9
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    SpringerOpen
    Publication Date: 2014-08-11
    Description: This article proposes Laplace Transform Homotopy Perturbation Method (LT-HPM) to find an approximate solution for the problem of an axisymmetric Newtonian fluid squeezed between two large parallel plates. After comparing figures between approximate and exact solutions, we will see that the proposed solutions besides of handy, are highly accurate and therefore LT-HPM is extremely efficient.
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-1801
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-09-28
    Description: This work presents a direct procedure to apply Padé method to find approximate solutions for nonlineardifferential equations. Moreover, we present some cases study showing the strength of the methodto generate highly accurate rational approximate solutions compared to other semi-analytical methods.The type of tested nonlinear equations are: a highly nonlinear boundary value problem, a differentialalgebraicoscillator problem, and an asymptotic problem. The high accurate handy approximationsobtained by the direct application of Padé method shows the high potential if the proposed scheme toapproximate a wide variety of problems. What is more, the direct application of the Padé approximantaids to avoid the previous application of an approximative method like Taylor series method, homotopyperturbation method, Adomian Decomposition method, homotopy analysis method, variationaliteration method, among others, as tools to obtain a power series solutions to post-treat with the Padéapproximant.
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-1801
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by SpringerOpen
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