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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This text investigates, for 2004 and 2009, the characteristics and living conditions of four demographic categories defined by household per capita income values. These are the extreme poor (those whose per capita incomes were less than R$ 67 in 2009), the poor (between R$ 67 and R$ 134), the vulnerable to poverty (between R$ 134 and R$ 465) and the non-poor (per capita incomes greater than R$ 465). We investigate the size of each group, its labor market insertion, demographic characteristics, educational attainment, geographical distribution, as well as various characteristics of the house they live in. We also present a classification of types of family most likely to be found in extreme poverty. Our first conclusion is that, in spite of the strong reductions in the number of poor, the relative geographical, age, racial, and educational distribution of poverty has not changed much between 2004 and 2009. Our second conclusion is that the most important changes in poverty were a result of: i) inclusive growth through the labor market; ii) real increases in the minimum wage which have all but eradicated extreme poverty and even non-extreme poverty among families counting on at least one elderly person; iii) increases in coverage and benefits of targeted cash transfers that were for many families with at least some labor income the escape route from extreme poverty and even poverty.
    Keywords: I32 ; ddc:330 ; Armut ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Arguments against means-tested cash transfers for the poor based upon labor supply appear both in the specialized literature and in the media. It is possible to make a microeconomic argument pointing to a reduction in labor supply on the part of beneficiaries of a targeted cash transfer. This would lead people giving up looking for a job, with long-term consequences for their human capital and social networks. This text reviews (we hope) all the studies made on this issue in Brazil since Cash Transfers have become important. The results are clear: with the exception of specific demographic groups such as women with children, either there are no labor disincentive effects at all or they are very small.
    Keywords: I38 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; conditional cash transfers ; labor supply ; labor incentives ; time allocation ; Transfereinkommen ; Arbeitsangebot ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The effect of school inputs upon educational outcomes has been extensively studies in the literature but there are still no conclusions as to its impacts. This paper presents results that suggest a strong impact of inputs upon age-grade lag for Brazilian primary schools between 1998 and 2005. We use more than one estimation method, but the results we believe are those from a fixed effects model based upon a panel of schools. The data come from the annual School Census from 1998 to 2005 which provides information on a cohort of 132.603 schools; municipal data come from the 2000 Demographic Census. Our most important result is that school inputs have strong positive effects upon educational outcomes, particularly in the case of those schools whose inputs are especially low.
    Keywords: I21 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungsinvestition ; Allgemeinbildende Schule ; Bildungsabschluss ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The following study uses two approaches to judge whether inequality in Brazil is falling fast enough. The first is to compare the variation of the Gini coefficient in Brazil with what was observed in several countries that today belong to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) - France, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States - while they built their social welfare systems during the last century. The second approach is to calculate for how long Brazil must keep up the fall in the Gini coefficient to attain the same levels of inequality of three OECD countries that can be used as a reference: Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The data indicate that the Gini coefficient in Brazil is falling 0.7 point per year and that this is superior to the rhythm of all the OECD countries analyzed while they built their welfare systems but Spain, whose Gini fell 0.9 point per year during the 1950s. The time needed to attain various benchmarks in inequality are: six years to Mexico, twelve to the United States and 24 to Canadian inequality levels. The general conclusion is that the speed with which inequality is falling is adequate, but the challenge will be to keep inequality falling at the same rate for another two or three decades.
    Keywords: D31 ; N30 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Gini-Koeffizient ; Brasilien ; OECD-Staaten
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Our objective is to analyze the gravity of panel attrition in the Brazilian Monthly Employment Survey (PME). There are three types of panel attrition: a) random, that does not produce any selection bias; b) function of observables, whose bias can be corrected through an appropriate re-weighing scheme; and c) function of unobservable variables, whose bias can be corrected through a bivariate probit for discrete variables or a Heckman correction for continuous ones. To test the gravity of panel attrition bias we estimated a transition to unemployment model both with and without attrition bias controls. Our results are that attrition tends to increase during school vacations and that attrition is strongly correlated to geographical mobility. Our conclusion is that while attrition bias does exist, its magnitude is small and its elimination does not substantially change analysis made using the models. In addition, in some cases, since it is not possible to control simultaneously for observable and non-observable attrition bias, in some cases the best procedure is not use on controls at all.
    Keywords: C33 ; C81 ; ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarktstatistik ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: In this text we address measurement, monitoring and cost issues relating to the eradication of extreme poverty in Brazil. We argue that, for the purpose of ending extreme poverty, income poverty is the relevant concept, and that an administrative extreme poverty line, decided upon politically, is the best criterion. For computational purposes, we use a R$ 67 extreme poverty line. The extreme poverty line should be updated using food inflation (INPC-alimentos) and progress should be assessed using the upcoming quarterly continuous household survey. We finally argue that families report incomes strategically, that even if correctly reported, all incomes are measured with error, and that those of poor people are also highly volatile. Given these limitations, the only way to ensure the end of extreme poverty is to give to extremely poor families a benefit close to the poverty line itself. We finally propose an incremental strategy that will cost less that 0,5% of GDP, using a R$ 67 line.
    Keywords: I38 ; ddc:330 ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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