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  • ddc:330  (24)
  • Diffusion  (1)
  • Amsterdam: Elsevier  (24)
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  • 1
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Three billion people cook their food on biomass-fueled fires. This practice contributes to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions from cooking, however, cookstoves made from modern materials and distributed through energy-intensive supply chains have higher embodied CO2-equivalent than traditional cookstoves. No studies exist examining whether lifetime emissions savings from fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves offset embodied emissions, and if so, by what margin. This paper is a complete life cycle inventory of 'The Berkeley-Darfur Stove,' disseminated in Sudan by the non-profit Potential Energy. We estimate the embodied CO2-equivalent in the cookstove associated with materials, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life is 17kg of CO2-equivalent. Assuming a mix of 55% non-renewable biomass and 45% renewable biomass, five years of service, and a conservative 35% reduction in fuel use relative to a three-stone fire, the cookstove will offset 7.5 tonnes of CO2-equivalent. A one-to-one replacement of a three-stone fire with the cookstove will save roughly 440 times more CO2-equivalent than it 'costs' to create and distribute. Over its five-year life, we estimate the total use-phase emissions of the cookstove to be 13.5 tonnes CO2-equivalent, and the use-phase accounts for 99.9% of cookstove life cycle emissions. The dominance of use-phase emissions illuminate two important insights: (1) without a rigorous program to monitor use-phase emissions, an accurate estimate of life cycle emissions from biomass cookstoves is not possible, and (2) improving a cookstove's avoided emissions relies almost exclusively on reducing use-phase emissions even if use-phase reductions come at the cost of substantially increased non-use-phase emissions.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: The effect of wine ratings on pricing has been a question for wine consumers for some time. Ultimately, wine preference, and thus how one judges a wine, is a subjective endeavor. Wine professionals have long rated wines and those published ratings have some effect on consumer sales. Previously, wine studies have found that there is a connection between rating and price. This study looks to try to verify that connection through insuring that best fit model development is used. For the first time in wine research, the authors have utilized Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare different models and more dynamic hypothesis testing to explore the relationship between ratings and prices of wines. In the end, it was confirmed that there is a link, and the use of AIC also helped to not only confirm previous findings, but also to identify a new concern in wine ratings.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Akaike Information Criteria ; Model testing ; Wine ; Wine rating
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: Despite the high likelihood of infection and substantial yield losses from trunk diseases, many California practitioners wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, and application of pruning-wound protectants) until after disease symptoms appear in the vineyard at around 10 years old. We evaluate net benefits from adoption of these practices before symptoms appear in young Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards and after they become apparent in mature vineyards to identify economic hurdles to early adoption. We simulate winegrape production in select counties of California and find widespread benefits from early adoption, increasing vineyard profitable lifespans, in some cases, by close to 50%. However, hurdles may result from uncertainty about the cost and returns from adoption, labor constraints, long time lags in benefits from early adoption, growers' perceived probabilities of infection, and their discount rate. Development of extension resources communicating benefits and potential hurdles to growers likely reduces uncertainty, increasing early adoption. Improvements in efficacy of preventative practices, perhaps by detecting when pathogen spores are released into the vineyard, will increase early adoption. Lastly, practice cost reductions will increase early adoption too, especially when the time it takes for adoption to payoff and infection uncertainty are influential in adoption decisions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Early adoption ; Grapevine trunk diseases ; Plant-disease management ; Preventative practices
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Based on brother correlations in permanent earnings for different groups of second generation immigrants, the findings in this paper indicate that cultural background is not a major determinant of the level of intergenerational economic mobility.
    Description: This is the author's version of a work that was accepted for publication in Economics Letters. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Economics Letters 114(2012), 3, pp. 335-337 and is online available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2011.11.007.
    Keywords: J62 ; ddc:330 ; Intergenerational mobility ; Sibling correlations ; Family background ; Equality of opportunities ; Einkommen ; Soziale Mobilität ; Migranten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: In this paper we present a theoretical review about the influence that exercises the corporate diversification strategy on performance. The review of the literature allows us to propose and justify explanations for two key questions that they have raised the interest of the researches in this topic, about the who consent in the literature does not still exist: if differences between the performance of the firms associated with exist the different strategies of diversification (different degree and/ or type of diversification) and if the national environment is a determining factor of the performance of the diversified firms.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; corporate diversification ; performance ; literature review
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 6
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Energy is the key factor for the growth of any country. Per capita energy consumption is the significance of the progress of any nation. With the increasing environmental impacts, word community is searching the way to shift towards sustainable energy sources. Recently the penetration of photovoltaic systems has increased to generate the electricity at grid or local level. Although this technology has improved a lot however the performance of these systems is site dependent. The experiment is conducted in laboratory of GLA University, Mathura, UP, India (hot and dry climate zone of India). Two PV modules of same electrical and mechanical specifications are taken for experiment. To analyze actual performance; different months of a year from various seasons are chosen including artificial wind. It has been observed that increased module temperature reduces performance but the cooling mechanism provided, bring down the module temperature due to which a net energy gain is 5.07% in considered time. Performance measure indices i.e. PR is improved by 3.4%. Experimental and Simulated energy is 431.28wh and 434.98wh for cooled module while for not cooled module experimental and simulated energy is 410.44wh and 439.7wh. Simulated values of energy are closer to experimental values for cooled module hence ANN avoids the underestimation of performance and overestimation of size, average simulated PR is also same as that of experimental PR i.e. 98.6%.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Back propagation ; Energy ; Performance ratio ; Photovoltaic ; Wind
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 7
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Composite materials are used in many marine structures such as renewable marine energy conversion systems because of their fairly good mechanical properties and especially their low densities compared to traditional materials. The most advanced features currently available in finite element (FE) Abaqus/Explicit have been employed to simulate the behavior of the composite nozzle under hydrodynamic and impact loading. A hydrodynamic analysis was considered to design the nozzle turbine and the hydrodynamic pressure obtained was then implemented as boundary conditions to a FE code. The goal of this article is to evaluate the durability of composite materials of a ducted tidal turbine under critical loads (hydrodynamic and hydrostatic pressures) with the implementation of a failure criterion using the finite element analysis (FEA). The mechanical behavior was analyzed for two materials (Carbon-epoxy/ Glass-polyester). This has been accomplished by forming a user-created routine (VUMAT) and executing it in the ABAQUS software.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ducted tidal turbine ; Finite element analysis ; Marine composite structures ; VUMAT
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 8
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: Open Source Software (OSS) begins to be considered the new paradigm of the software distribution. Nevertheless, the recent appearance of OSS prevents to know its real impact at the present time in the social and organizational scopes. Due to this obstacle, the authors have defined a Delphi study for reaching a scenario about the diffusion of OSS in 2010, according to the main applications, geographic areas and economic sectors. Complementarily, the authors have researched the critical success factors and the main barriers for the diffusion and adoption of OSS.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; OSS ; forecasting ; Delphi method ; critical success factors ; Diffusion
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: As a mass communication medium, the Internet has lately developed from a double perspective: on the one hand as a distribution channel and on the other as a communication channel. From this second perspective, the Web allows consumers an unlimited access to information and a greater control of their contact with advertising, because they can choose what commercial content they wish to see, when they receptive to it and whether they want to receive it completely. In this sense, the measurement of attitude to Internet advertising and its assessment by Internet users has become an essential element for the development of more profitable and efficient business communication strategies. This paper analyses the influence of advertising types on advertising assessment, as well as the effect of Internet users' previous awareness of the different advertising formats on their attitude to Internet advertising.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Web advertising ; knowledge ; advertising effectiveness
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: This study investigates the effect of the presence of fireplaces at the household level independent of the function of ambiance and indoor air quality. The focus of this study is on the winter heating energy use of homes with and without fireplaces to promote energy conservation. Three years of winter energy usage (2011-2013) of 365,190 single-family homes are analyzed and compared. The data is further segmented by fuel type, all-electric versus dual-fuel homes as well as by size and vintage. On average, homes with fireplaces used 23,650 kBtu, source energy, for heating purposes during the winter months versus 18,055 kBtu (pÈ0.0001) during the same time period, January, February, and December. There is a significant 31% increase in energy use in homes with fireplaces. In conclusion, policy prescriptions and retrofits are recommended during new home construction permits, renovations, and utility rebate outreach programs to encourage more efficient and cleaner fireplace technology applications.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Data analytics ; Energy conservation ; Fireplace ; Residential energy consumption ; Winter energy efficiency
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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