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  • Other Sources  (33)
  • EU-Staaten  (33)
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  • 1
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: We estimate the effect of immigrant flows on native employment in Western Europe, and then ask whether the employment consequences of immigration vary with institutions that affect labor market flexibility. Reduced flexibility may protect natives from immigrant competition in the near term, but our theoretical framework suggests that reduced flexibility is likely to increase the negative impact of immigration on equilibrium employment. In models without interactions, OLS estimates for a panel of European countries in the 1980s and 1990s show small, mostly negative immigration effects. To reduce bias from the possible endogeneity of immigration flows, we use the fact that many immigrants arriving after 1991 were refugees from the Balkan wars. An IV strategy based on variation in the number of immigrants from former Yugoslavia generates larger though mostly insignificant negative estimates. We then estimate models allowing interactions between the employment response to immigration and institutional characteristics including business entry costs. These results, limited to the sample of native men, generally suggest that reduced flexibility increases the negative impact of immigration. Many of the estimated interaction terms are significant, and imply a significant negative effect on employment in countries with restrictive institutions.
    Keywords: J23 ; J61 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; Immigrant absorption ; European unemployment ; labor market flexibility ; entry costs ; Einwanderung ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsmarktflexibilisierung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper proposes a method for detecting income classes based on the change-point problem. There is an increasing demand for such a method in the literature. Computation of polarization indices requires a pre-grouping of the incomes. Similarly, indices of social exclusion and sometimes indices of income inequality require detection of thresholds. The estimation procedure is implemented using a bootstrap technique. Finally, an application of the method to EU member states and to the United States is also considered.
    Keywords: D31 ; ddc:330 ; income distribution ; change-point ; thresholds ; Einkommensverteilung ; Disparitätsmass ; Soziale Isolation ; Theorie ; EU-Staaten ; Vereinigte Staaten ; change-point
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    München: ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Keywords: D41 ; L61 ; O57 ; Q20 ; ddc:330 ; Zementindustrie ; Umweltauflage ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Vergleich ; EU-Staaten ; Großbritannien ; Spanien ; Deutschland ; Cement industry ; Environmental regulation ; Global competition ; Comparison ; EU countries ; United Kingdom ; Spain ; Germany
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    München: ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2017-08-08
    Keywords: E00 ; F02 ; F12 ; F13 ; G18 ; H60 ; ddc:330 ; Konvergenzkriterie ; Finanzpolitik ; Institutionelle Infrastruktur ; Internationale wirtschaftspolitische Koordination ; Europäische Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion ; EU-Staaten ; Convergence criteria ; Fiscal policy ; Institutional infrastructure ; Economic policy coordination ; European Economic and Monetary Union ; EU countries
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
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    Luxembourg: European Investment Bank (EIB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-04
    Description: With the advent of the digital revolution in the 1990s, productivity growth in the EU began to slip behind that in the US and other leading trading partners. This trend has undermined the comparative ability of European firms to compete and to provide rewarding jobs and a high standard of living. Low comparative productivity and misallocation of investment, alongside many structural weaknesses, help explain why the global crisis hit Europe so hard, and why EU-wide recovery still presents such a challenge. Since 1990, the inflation-adjusted absolute GDP per capita gap between the EU and US has increased by more than 50%. In absolute terms, the GDP per capita of EU regions has diverged since 1990, not converged. Productivity growth in the EU has trailed the US since the mid-1990s and was hit harder during the crisis than in other regions.
    Description: Eine chronische Investitionsschwäche in wichtigen Bereichen, ineffiziente und fragmentierte Finanzmärkte sowie institutionelle Hemmnisse sind die Ursache dafür, dass Europa sein Potenzial für ein langfristiges, nachhaltiges Wachstum und für die Verstärkung seiner Wettbewerbsfähigkeit nicht nutzt. Sieben Krisenjahre in Folge haben viel Vertrauen zerstört, einen Rückgang der Gesamtinvestitionen bewirkt und strukturelle Investitionslücken vergrößert. Dieser Bericht untersucht, wie die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der EU langfristig wiederhergestellt werden kann und welche Aufgaben der öffentliche Sektor dabei übernehmen kann. Im Mittelpunkt des Berichts stehen die Grundvoraussetzungen für einen Erfolg, der langfristiger Investitionen bedarf und für unser Wohlergehen in Zukunft entscheidend ist. Der Bericht enthält Informationen darüber, wie strategische Prioritäten festgelegt werden und warum die Maßnahmen zur Ankurbelung langfristiger, wettbewerbsfördernder Investitionen auf europäischer Ebene verstärkt werden müssen
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 6
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    Manchester: The University of Manchester, Manchester Business School
    Publication Date: 2018-07-02
    Description: This paper contributes to our understanding of agenda shaping and decision making in science, technology and innovation policy and the role of political entrepreneurship in this process. It does so by looking at the emergence of a particular new STI policy area, security research, in the specific political setting of the European Union. This emergence was in many ways a remarkable new development in EU STI policy and is a puzzle that has yet to be analysed. This paper asks why, how, by whom and in what form security research was put on to the policy agenda and then finally included in the Framework Programme at this specific point in time. The paper emphasises the interplay between discursive mechanisms and power and interest based negotiations. The analysis focuses on the role of the European Commission as policy entrepreneur in pushing the topic onto the agenda and through the decision making process. The main argument is that the Commission was the originator of the Security theme and that the institutional role, entrepreneurial competencies and discursive skills of the Commission helped to capture and utilise a window of opportunity and orchestrate change. However, diverse interests in Member States and in the EU Parliament as well as the lack of a broader normative consensus severely limited the scope of the Security theme. The Commission was thus a constrained entrepreneur, successful in pushing a new area - security research - onto the agenda, but falling short of altering the landscape of defence research in Europe. To explain this complex story of policy change in STI policy and to understand the role and limitations of the European Commission as policy entrepreneur, the paper builds on neo-institutional and European integration theories. This paper makes four contributions: First, it delivers a more complete picture of the current landscape of European research policy, as the Security theme under the seventh Framework Programme has not been discussed in any great detail so far. This serves, second, to illustrate and further develop our understanding of the levers and limitations of policy entrepreneurs in STI policy making. Thirdly, the paper highlights the meaning of ambiguity in discursive development of policy and, finally and most generally, demonstrates how important it is to understand the interplay of ideas and interests in STI policy and the meaning of policy origins.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Forschungspolitik ; Nationale Sicherheit ; Wissenschaftsforschung ; Policy-Ansatz ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: In the aftermath of the financial crisis trust, in the European Central Bank (ECB) has reached an historical low. Taking panel data and using a fixed effects DFGLS estimation for a 12–country sample over the time period 1999 to 2011 with a total of 312 observations, this paper detects a structural break in citizens’ trust in the ECB. The paper confirms that during the pre-crisis period, citizens’ trust in the ECB was driven by economic growth. In crisis time, however, trust in the ECB is both driven by inflation and unemployment.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Financial Crisis ; Trust ; European Central Bank ; Zentralbank ; Europäische Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion ; Vertrauen ; Meinung ; EU-Staaten ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Welt ; Eurozone
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F01 ; F20 ; F50 ; ddc:330 ; Zentralisierung ; Subsidiaritätsprinzip ; Staat ; EU-Staaten ; USA
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: This is the first paper to study job creation and destruction in EU agriculture. We disaggregate gross employment patterns and net job flows into detailed intra-sectoral labour adjustment dynamics based on a unique EU-wide firm level panel dataset for 1990-2005. We find that: (1) job creation and destruction rates in EU agriculture are comparable to other sectors; (2) there is some evidence of ongoing substitution of family labour for hired labour (3) there are important differences in job creation and destruction rates between different Member States; (4) these differences can be attributed to structural differences across countries, sectors and firm types; (5) time variation of job reallocation fluctuates countercyclically; (6) idiosyncratic effects are the main driver of time variance in job reallocation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Job creation ; job destruction ; FADN ; EU ; labour adjustment in agriculture ; Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Landwirtschaft ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Recently, the European Commission has proposed to introduce a new mi- gration policy instrument - Blue Cards - to attract highly skilled workers from abroad by lifting labour market restrictions, offering financial and housing ben- efits. The excludability character of human capital suggests that what is benefi- cial for receiving countries might be hfirmful for sending countries. This article investigates if and why high-skill migration in general and Blue Card scheme in particular might be hfirmful for sending countries. We find that the proposed Blue Card scheme makes the developing country growth prospects indeed blue. However, compared to other firms of labour migration, the upcoming Blue Card scheme is known well in advance. Analysing alternative policy options we show that, taking advantage of this ex-ante infirmation, targeted and timed policy interventions can minimise the adverse impacts of high-skill emigration. Thus, compared to other migration regimes Blue Cards are worse for sending countries, but they offer better opportunities for them to avoid the adverse impacts.
    Keywords: F02 ; F22 ; ddc:330 ; High-skill migration ; innovative capital ; economic growth ; Brain Drain ; Standortwettbewerb ; Migrationspolitik ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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