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  • 1
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: STEM ; PEELS ; HAADFI ; Nanolithography ; Super-resolution ; STM ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The Microstructural Physics group at the Cavendish Laboratory is actively involved in a considerable number of research projects which cover a broad range of materials science. In this paper, we describe briefly several such projects, with particular emphasis given to the application of parallel-detection electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) on a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to the analysis of materials such as stainless steels, catalysts, and high temperature superconductors. In addition, we describe a number of related projects that are currently being carried out in the group, particularly those which utilise and develop novel STEM imaging and analytical techniques. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 19 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 156 (1993), S. 462-468 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the present study, we have sought to determine whether a given signal transduction pathway can have diverse effects on subpopulations of cells of a lineage depending upon the stage of differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we selected the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal transduction pathway because of its recognized importance in mediating the actions of many hormones, e.g., parathyroid hormone which acts on the bone-forming cells, the osteoblasts. Subpopulations of human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells with low (LSaOS) and high (HSaOS) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content were chosen as model systems for preosteoblasts (pre-OB) and osteoblasts (OB), respectively. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) treatment of serum free cultures produced a differential effect on the proliferation of LSaOS cells (40 ± 5% of control at 1 mM DBcAMP, P 〈 0.001) compared with HSaOS cells (no statistically significant effect). The finding supports the hypothesis. Next, we sought evidence for mediation, at least in part, by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II regulatory system. We report that the basal expression of IGF-II, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and IGFBP-4 was higher in LSaOS cells than in HSaOS cells with the opposite true for type I IGF receptor. DBcAMP treatment of LSaOS cells decreased IGF-II and IGFBP-3 but increased IGFBP-4 and type I IGF receptor; no effect was observed for the type II IGF receptors. DBcAMP treatment of HSaOS cells had no detectable effect on IGF-II; IGFBP-3, or type I and type II IGF receptor expression; only IGFBP-4 expression increased with DBcAMP. These observations suggest that the differential regulation of cell proliferation by the cAMP signal transduction pathway may be mediated, at least in part, by the IGF-II regulatory system. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 112 (1982), S. 10-18 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Intermediate subviral particles (ISVP) derived from reovirus represent a simple model system for the switch-on of transcriptase function. In such particles the endogenous transcriptase is present in a switched-off form, one step removed from the switched-on state. Switch-on of transcriptase function is an active process in this system and can be triggered by K+ ions. A variety of agents which affect gene expression in cells were tested for an effect on switch-on in ISVP. Marked effects on switch-on in ISVP were observed with a diverse group of test agents, including DMSO and other solvents, BUdR, TdR, caffeine, theophylline, and temperature. The correlation in response between ISVP and cells suggests that the ISVP system may be useful as a model for studying the biochemical mechanisms underlying the perturbative effects of such agents on gene expression in cells.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 153 (1992), S. 103-111 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) proliferate in a serum-free defined growth medium in the absence of epidermal growth factor (Li and Shipley, 1991). Amphiregulin (AR) is a heparin-regulated, EGF-like growth factor. Our observation that one strain of HMECs produce AR mRNA (Cook et al., 1991a) stimulated us to determine whether AR expression was a common phenomenon in HMECs and whether AR could act as an autocrin growth factor to support the EGF-independent growth of these cells. In this study, we detected high levels of AR expression in four separate HMEC strains while one immortal mammary cell line (HBL-100) and six mammary tumor-derived cell lines had low to undetectable levels of AR. The EGF-indendent growth of HMECs was blocked by the addition of heparin or a monoclonal anti-RGF receptors antibody to the culture medium, implication AR as an autocrine growth mediator. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that medium conditioned by HMECs contains secreted AR protein. A mammary tumor-derived cell line, Hs578T, which proliferates in an EGF-independent manner, does not express detectable levels of AR and is not growth inhibited by heparin. Examination of the same cell types for expression of transforming growth factor type-alpha (TGF-α) mRNA revealed coordinate expression of AR and TGF-α in these cells. These data suggest that both AR and TGF-α mRNA are produced in much greater abundance by normal HMECs than in tumor-derived cells in culture, and that AR is an important autostimulatory factor for the growth of normal HMECs. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: An error estimate for the finite element method is presented in this paper. The error is identified as the response to a set of residual forces, and a complementary analysis provides an upper bound estimate of the global energy of the error. The inequality proposed by Babuška and Miller1 is then employed to bound the error in stress and displacement at a point. The formula is derived for two-dimensional elasticity, but the procedure is general; and can be applied to three-dimensional and other problems. Numerical experiments using the procedure are carried out and the results are given for the four-node bilinear compatible element and plane stress.
    Additional Material: 19 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 41 (1995), S. 277-286 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: EGF-like ligands ; Postnatal development ; RT-PCR ; Immunocytochemistry ; Immunoblotting ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Amphiregulin (Ar) and Cripto-1 (Cr-1) are growth promoting peptides that share amino acid sequence homology with epidermal growth factor (EGF). The present study examined Ar and Cr-1 mRNA and protein expression during various stages of C57BL/6 mouse mammary morphogenesis. Reverse transciption-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect transcripts for Ar and Cr-1 at all stages of mammary development. Immunocytochemical (ICC) localization demonstrated that in virgin 4-week to mature 12-week-old mouse fourth inguinal mammary gland, Ar and Cr-1 are expressed in the stromal cells, luminal epithelial cells, and myoepithelial cells of the branching ducts. Ar, and to lesser extent Cr-1, were also found in the epithelial cap cells and in the luminal epithelial cells of the advancing terminal end bud (TEB) from virgin 4-week and 6-week-old mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated that both Ar (28 and 26 kDa) and Cr-1 (90, 67, 56, and 21 kDa) proteins are expressed in virgin, 13.5 day midpregnant and in the 14 day lactating mammary gland. In addition, Ar and Cr-1 are associated with developing alveolar structures as determined by ICC. These results imply that together with EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), Ar and Cr-1 may play salient roles as modifiers in the morphogenesis and differentiation of the mammary gland. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Philadelphia : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 10 (1984), S. 339-351 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; flow cytometry ; DNA staining ; nuclear morphology ; ultrastructure ; mammals ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The morphological and ultrastructural changes that occur during preparation of porcine, bovine, and murine spermatozoa for flow cytometric quantification of the relative DNA content of the X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm populations were examined. Ejaculated spermatozoa from the boar and bull were washed using a series of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions prior to fixation, whereas the epididymal mouse spermatozoa were washed only in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Spermatozoa from all three species were then fixed in ethanol and processed for fluorochrome staining by a treatment regimen consisting of sulfhydryl reduction and proteolysis. The processed sperm nuclei were stained for DNA with the fluorochrome, 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) before quantification by flow cytometry. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs of sperm heads taken at various steps of the preparation and staining procedures show 1) that the rigorous washing procedure disrupted the plasma and outer acrosomal membranes, 2) that ethanol fixation resulted in removal of the outer membranes and disintegration of the nuclear envelope, and 3) that thiol and proteolysis treatment removed the remaining cellular organelles including the tail and rapidly induced partial decondensation of the tightly packed chromatin. Sequential micrographs showed that the nuclear matrix of all three species increased in thickness about twofold during the preparation and staining. Consequently, the harsh procedures currently used for quantitative staining of DNA for high-resolution flow cytometric analyses destroy most cellular organelles and thereby prevent simultaneous characterization of DNA content and other sperm cell constituents.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 4 (1981), S. 203-217 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: α-chlorohydrin ; antifertility agent ; ram ; sperm metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effects of the male antifertility agent, α-chlorohydrin, six of its derivatives, and glycidol were studied on the metabolism of washed ram spermatozoa in vitro with fructose as substrate. The α-chlorohydrin derivatives were the amino, the phosphorylated, and four glycol-bridge (ketal) compounds. All compounds except glycidol, in a concentration between 0.1 and 100 mM, reduced the aerobic glycolsis and/or oxidation of fructose. However, there was not a high correlation between the ability of these compounds to inhibit the metabolism of ram spermatozoa in vitro and their antifertility activity when administered to male rats. Other factors are clearly involved in their antifertility activity, eg, the concentration of the compounds in the epididymis and their conversion of either more or less spermicidal compounds in the body.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 15 (1993), S. 695-697 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The male gametes of most organisms lack cytoplasm. Consequently, most cytoplasmic genetic elements are maternally inherited: they cannot be transmitted patrilinnearly. The evolutionary interests of cytoplasmic elements therefore lie in transmission through the female. These elements may thus be in evolutionary conflict with nuclear genes which are transmitted by both sexes. This conflict is manifested in observations of cytoplasmically induced biased sex-ratios. Some cytoplasmic genes avoid this fate by biasing the primary sex ratio towards females, or by inducing parthenogenesis. Others kill male hosts, and either achieve transmission via dispersal, or benefit their clonal relatives in the dead male's female siblings. Still others cause the failure of zygotes resulting from pairings between males carrying specific microbes and females lacking them, causing an increase in the microbes through the sterilisation of non-bearing females. Many, but not all, of these ‘ultra-selfish’ microbes are closely related. Investigations of the significance of their phylogenetic affinities, or lack of them, their adaptability in terms of the methods by which they avoid, or ameliorate, the adverse effects of being in male hosts, and their importance as selective agents in the evolution of invertebrate sex determination systems, provide fertile spheres for future research.
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